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Sustaining Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functions

Economic Issues

Clement A. Tisdell

This innovative book identifies socio-economic processes which transform the stock of genetic resources and ecosystems and discusses sustainability issues raised by variations in this stock. It focuses subsequently on the socio-economics of the conservation and change in the stock of human developed germplasm and ecosystems. Particular attention is given to crops, livestock, GMOs, reduced economic value due to biological erosion, alternative agroecosystems, and property rights in germplasm. The book concludes with an exploration of the economic topics dealing with changes in the stock of wild germplasm and natural ecosystems, and discusses the associated valuation problems.
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Index

Clement A. Tisdell

Advisory Board on Biodiversity and Genetic Resources at BMELV 229
Africa 96, 182, 317
elephants 315, 31920, 323
agency costs 3445, 402
Agenda 21 403
agroecology 196
agroecosystems 34, 813, 18991
Albani, M. 305
albatross 30910
Andow, D.A. 14950
aquaculture 26, 81, 151, 197, 198200, 204, 316
Arrow, K.J. 80, 266, 276
Asia 8, 96, 133, 189
elephants 49, 79
Australia 264, 3414
Aborigines and tribal rights 303, 324
Atherton Tablelands – tree corridors 339
buffel grass 377
cactoblastis moth 3767
cane toads 23, 43, 3768
cattle grazing and red kangaroos 316
Coles supermarket and Indigenous Food Fund 11314
common wallaroos 138
Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary 31011
European carp 23
fairy penguins 309
feral pigs 22, 37, 182, 383
fire ants 3778
hand-fed animals and dependence on humans 31011
hare-wallabies 138
hawksbill turtles 225
indigenous food plants, late cultivation of 11114
kangaroos 304, 316, 324
Eastern Grey 138
Red 367, 138
tree 49, 306, 312, 333, 339
Western Grey 138
Lamington National Park 2479, 310
livestock 132, 138, 140, 141
Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary 311
macadamia nuts 11213
mahogany glider 249
Monkey Mia 311
Moreton Island 311
mosaic burning by Aborigines 22
northern hairy-nosed wombat 49, 138
O’Reilly’s wild birds as tourist attraction 310
Paluma National Park: Jourama Falls Section (Queensland) 249
Parks and Wildlife Commission 343
path dependence in developing indigenous plants for commercialization 56
Phytophthora (crown/root rot) 23
Pinus radiata (pine) 201
prickly pears 3767
property rights in non-captive wildlife conservation 315
Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (Mon Repos Rookery) sea turtle conservation 310
rabbits 383
red river gums 102
red-tailed black cockatoo 327, 3424
saltwater crocodiles 61, 225, 271, 32021, 324, 332, 3423
shrub spinifex 138
taipan snake 250
turtles 225, 310
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) modified crops 147, 151, 1545, 157, 161, 164, 171, 173
pest and disease control, declining effectiveness of 212, 218
bacteria 146, 21112
Balmford, A. 194
Bandara, R. 80
Batie, S.S. 147, 158, 163, 171
Baumol, W.J. 159
Bennett, M. 196
Benson, D.E. 3023, 336
bequest values 49, 306
Bergson, A. 31, 269
Bevers, M. 389, 393, 400, 403, 404
Biggs, R. 149
bilateral agreements 224, 236
Binkley, C.S 391
bio-industries 234, 45, 46, 91
biofuels 945, 115, 151
biological fitness 107
biological law of tolerance 135
biological stock conservation 7075
biomes 34, 367
biophysical relationships 3756, 378, 382, 386
biopolitics 321
biosafety regulations 158, 168, 170
Bishop, R.C. 76, 329
black rhinoceros 303
Blench, R. 120, 130
Boscolo, M. 3923
Botswana 320
Okavango Delta 55
bounded rationality 689, 245, 258, 270, 372
Bowes, M.D 391
Braat, L. 261
Brazil 98
Brennan, G. 227
Bromley, D.W. 323
Brown, R.P.C. 111
Brown, T.C. 177
Brundtland Report 62
Brush, S.B. 2345, 237
built capital 364
Canada: Inuits and tribal rights 303
Cao, S. 3789
capital accumulation and advances in science and technology 457
carbon dioxide levels 75, 91, 188, 298, 392
Caring for the World 280
Cartagena Protocol 228
cattle see livestock
cereals 412, 946, 107, 109, 111, 115
rice 33, 456, 75, 155, 1923, 205
wheat 412, 44, 456, 96, 112, 1923, 205
see also corn (maize)
Cerneau, M.M. 323
certification schemes 171
Chapin III, F.S. 182
Chiarolla, C. 233
Chicago School of Economics 222
China 44, 96, 98, 201, 341
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton 147, 154
desertification 375, 37880, 3878
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 1478, 155, 16061, 171
Grain for Green Project 16, 37980, 382
livestock 134, 136
State Forest Administration 378, 380
Ciriacy-Wantrup, S.V. 76, 789, 84, 13940, 252, 283, 304, 315
Clark, C. 126, 3045, 349, 3534
Clark, J.M. 12, 47, 216
classification of genetic resources stock and ecosystems 56, 1939
determinants of changes 226
economic trade-offs involved in transformation of ecosystems 313
germplasm in the wild 226
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2630
monetary values of ecosystem services 29
natural capital 1920, 35
nature, classification and value of ecosystems 2633
organisms as assets or pests (liabilities) 358
partitions of biosphere, determination of status of 345
taxonomy to assist economic analysis 212
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) 1920, 2631
Clements, F.E. 178
climate change and global warming 46, 75, 104, 108, 352
club goods 227
co-evolution 120, 140, 16970
Coase, R.H. 222
coefficients of concern for future generations 689
Columbus, C. 44
Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 226
commodification 173
common-pool resources 217
communal management/governance 323
communitarianism 185
community and public incentives 328
comparative advantage 50, 123, 280, 283, 28590, 298
compensation
aggregate amounts and distribution 2345
economic incentives for wildlife conservation on private lands 333, 336, 340, 341
valuing and sustaining natural ecosystem services 366
when others use heritage germplasm 233, 234
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 2512, 2712
see also willingness to accept compensation (WAC)
consumer sovereignty 195
consumer surplus, loss of 1056
convenience foods 93, 111
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 12, 15, 2245, 236, 319, 323
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 15, 225, 319, 320, 321, 323
Conway, G.R. 7, 813, 85, 86, 18991, 204
coral reefs 29, 102
corn (maize) 44, 96, 15051, 173, 205
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 157, 169
human developed and modified ecosystems 1923, 196
cost of replacement method 3725, 3812
cost-effectiveness 109, 114, 2634, 2745
Costanza, R. 259, 275, 3635, 3679, 371, 3823
Craft, A.B. 252
crop yields 813, 180, 19091
crops and socio-economics of
biodiversity loss and change 79, 91115
demand, changes in and genetic loss 926, 99
demand and potential economic benefits of germplasm conservation 1046
economic growth and macroeconomic factors 99101
existing food crop germplasm, loss of 929
harvesting methods 967
high yielding varieties (HYVs) 96
indigenous food crop varieties in Pacific Islands 11011, 114, 115
indigenous food plants in Australia 11114
intensification 102
land-saving (land-sparing) agroecosystems and biodiversity loss 1013, 114
livelihood and income dependence 106
market extension including increased international trade 979
methods for crop germplasm conservation (e.g. gene banks) 10810
mixed cropping 196
predictable environmental or ecological changes (e.g. climate change) 1067
public policy and economic priorities for crop germplasm conservation 1037
supply-side influences 967, 99
varieties of crops 97
see also cereals; oil palm
cross-breeding 121, 150
cross-fertilization 108, 155
cross-pollination 17071
Crosthwaite, J. 3367
cultural services 3656
Daly, H.E. 6, 62, 69, 71, 73
David, P.A. 124
Dawkins, R. 68
DDT resistance 212
De Groot, R. 367
De Haas, Y. 1312
Deane, P. 351
decoupling 3, 24, 345, 110, 121, 1336, 140, 197
deforestation 75
Denison, E.F. 351, 353
desertification 375, 37880, 3878
diamond-water paradox 382
discount rates 349, 355
discounting 183, 185
diseases 35, 104, 135, 191
see also pest and disease control
DNA 74, 146, 231
domesticated species 256, 101
drop-off effect 249, 258, 274
drought-resistance 107
Durand, G. 183
economic growth, macroeconomic factors and biodiversity loss 99101
economic incentives for wildlife conservation on private lands 15, 16, 32746
Australia 3414
Australia: red-tailed black cockatoo 327, 3424
Australia: saltwater crocodile eggs 332, 3423
compensation 333, 336, 340, 341
financial incentives 33540, 344
government intervention 3334, 335
grants 340, 344
habitat restoration and protection 335, 33840
loans 344
market failures and usefulness of markets 332, 3335
mobility of wildlife 327, 3334
non-use values 327, 333, 337, 339, 341, 345
payment for ecosystem services (PES) 327, 335
private property rights and free markets 33032
prohibition on consumptive wildlife use and/or on habitat destruction 340, 345
public interest 329
public leasing of private land 336
public policies 336
social conflict 332
Sri Lanka: Asian elephant 328, 3334, 341
subsidies 335, 336, 33740, 344
taxation concessions 336, 340, 344
trespass laws 336
use values 33031, 333, 336, 337, 341, 345
consumptive 334
net 344
non-consumptive 331, 334
economic regret 778
economic valuation 1826, 24652, 256, 25961, 2623
collective 334
see also total economic value
economics and spatial aspects of ecosystem use 14, 1617, 386405
land sharing and land sparing 3879
see also selective logging and orangutan conservation
Ehrlich, P.R. 350
elephants
African 315, 31920, 323
Asian 49, 79
end-uses 945, 97, 192
endangered species 120, 138, 141, 303, 319
see also Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES); rare breeds
Engels, F. 72
environmental externalities 102, 158, 195
environmental spillovers 48, 158, 1923, 199200
Erickson, J.D. 304
Ervin, D.E. 147, 158, 163, 171
ethanol production 151
European ‘Age of Discovery’ 42, 445, 567
European Union 41, 120, 141
Patent Office 223, 229
eutrophication of waterways 102, 188
exclusion costs 334
existence values 49, 306, 320, 332, 333
exotic species 23, 127, 201, 375, 3778
expected values, status quo and conservation preferences 7981
extinction 3445, 3524
livestock 120, 121, 1279, 138
property rights in non-captive wildlife and biodiversity conservation 3045, 307, 316, 318
fall-back options 75
Farber, S. 369
farm-holiday sector 311, 329
Feindt, P.H. 13, 221, 225, 231, 236
feral pigs 22, 37, 182, 383
fertilizers 456
crops and socio-economics of biodiversity loss and change 967, 102
human developed and modified ecosystems 180, 182, 187, 19091, 193, 195
organic 182
fires 285, 298
fish and fisheries 23, 142, 211, 306, 309, 316, 332
see also aquaculture
Fisher, A.C. 80
food
conversion ratios 1412
fruits 10910
potatoes 44, 169
poultry 142, 211
security 139
soya beans 44, 945, 169
tomatoes 44, 169
see also crops; fish and fisheries; livestock
Food and Agriculture Organisation
(FAO) 21, 24, 25, 109, 130
Worldwatch List 120
forestry 75
REDD schemes 380
sustainable forest management (SFM) 392
see also selective logging and orangutan conservation; silviculture
France 269
Franzel, S. 196
free-riding 54, 177, 2667, 335
Freese, C.H. 304
fruits 109, 110
fungi/fungal diseases 23, 154, 211
game-against-nature scenarios 104
García-Fernández, C. 392
Garnett, T. 194, 204
gene banks 10810
General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade (GATT) Uruguay Round 223
genetic diversity 106
loss 91, 191
genetic engineering advances and
genetically modified organisms
(GMOs) 910, 11, 48, 53, 14673, 237, 264
biodiversity loss: ecological processes 14954
biological erosion counteraction 157
biosafety regulations 158, 168, 170
cisgenic organisms 146
co-evolution, lack of 16970
commercial markets 162
cross-breeding 150
cross-fertilization 155
cross-pollination 17071
economic factors and nature of development and marketing 16064
gene flows 150, 153
genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) 148
herbicide resistance 147, 1557, 173
hybridization 150, 1534
industrial-type agriculture 162
intensification or extension of agriculture, aquaculture or silviculture 15051
interspecies competition and resistance 1557
legal liability 160, 1712
long-term biodiversity change, processes involving 15053
overhead costs 162, 1656
patents/patent walls 16061, 1656, 169
pest resistance (reduced pesticide) 147, 151, 1567, 171, 173
precautionary principle 1589
selective breeding and biodiversity loss 1534
social conflicts and knowledge imperfections 17071
social criterion 15960
stock of genetic material 151
stress tolerance 151
support from economic theory 1649
trade-off between attributes 1545
transaction costs 1612, 1678, 172
transgenic organisms 146, 149, 150, 153, 157, 170
type I and type II errors 158
see also Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) modified crops; intellectual property rights in human developed genetic material
genetic introgression 122
genetic resources see classification of genetic resources stock and ecosystems; germplasm
genetic stock see socio-economic processes transforming genetic stock and altering ecosystems; sustainable development and changes in genetic stock and ecosystems
genome (unit of germplasm) 21, 146
geographical extension of human contacts and migration 30, 435
Germany 172
Luneberg Heath 119
germplasm 43, 44, 45, 51, 74, 91, 98, 153, 31718
crop conservation 929, 103110
genome 21, 146
heritage 4, 73, 220, 226, 2324, 236, 239
natural 1920
Ghana 388
Global Environment Facility (United Nations) 383
Global Food Policy Report of IFPRI (2013) 192
globalization 98, 12022, 126, 12730, 140, 3512
Godden, D. 2267
government intervention 3334, 335
Gowdy, J. 7, 183
grants 340, 344
Green Revolution 24
greenhouse gas emissions 456
gross domestic product (GDP) 59, 100, 3678, 369, 370, 381, 382
Gustavsson, J. 103
Hall, B.H. 227
Hall, C.A.S. 304
Hammond, K. 122
Harhoff, D. 227
Harting, J.E. 352
‘headstart’ programmes 311
heat stress 104
heat-tolerance 107
Heisenberg principle 258
Heisey, P. 166
herbicides 187, 205, 212
glufosimate 173
glyphosphate 1567, 173, 212
resistance 147, 1557, 173
heritage agrobiodiversity 237
heritage biodiversity 1512
heritage capital 4, 35
heritage germplasm 4, 73, 220, 226, 2324, 236, 239
heritage stock 114
Hiemstra, S.J. 141
Hodgkin, T. 108
Hof, J.G. 389, 393, 400, 403, 404
Holocene era 42, 43, 56, 91, 111, 114, 115, 189
Honolulu 29
Horsup, A. 138
Howarth, R. 369
human capital 71, 72, 364
human developed genetic material see intellectual property rights in human developed genetic material
human developed and modified ecosystems 7, 1011, 177206
abiotic components 1789, 1878
agroecology 196
aquaculture 197, 198200, 204
attributes and value 18997
biotic components 1789, 1878
concept of ecosystem 17880
economic valuation 1826
extension versus intensification 2013
external inputs/human effort 187
functioning of altered ecosystems 1869
high external resource-using agroecosystems 18991
hydroponics 197
non-use value 183
on-site preparation 1878
organic agriculture 1946, 206
permaculture 1967
resilience and resistance 18082, 204, 205
silviculture (managed forestry) 1978, 200201, 204
single monetary values 1846
sustainable agricultural intensification 1924, 2046
total economic value 1834, 204
use value 183
Husson, S.J. 283, 2967, 299, 3945
hybridization 96, 150, 1534, 229, 237
hydroponics 197
hypothetical games against nature: precaution does not always favour conservation 768
hysteresis (lack of reversibility) 7981, 125
impossibility theorem 276
income factors 4, 7980, 100, 106, 115, 192
India 211, 388
indigenous food crop varieties in Pacific Islands, loss of 11011, 114, 115
indigenous food plants in Australia 11114
indigenous land rights 303, 324
Indonesia 46
palm oil 50, 54
Industrial Revolution 3
insecticides 212
insects 212
pests 154, 3768
institutional considerations 5056
intellectual property rights in human developed genetic material 1213, 513, 16061, 169, 22039
anti-commons 2312
biotechnological knowledge/research and development (R&D) 221
biotechnology patents (biopatents) 220, 223, 22632
economic development 222
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 228
germplasm 224
heritage germplasm 220, 226, 2324, 236, 239
knowledge about new biotechnology as non-rival but excludable commodity 227
‘layering’ 225, 236
market concentration, barriers to entry and new plant varieties 2289
markets extension 222
new plant varieties 223
patent blocking of research and patent thickets 2312
patent law 221
policy development 2216
political support 221
private property rights 220
restrictive market behaviours and biotechnology patents 228
self-interest 222, 2278, 232
social and economic value of market structures 222
technological progress 222, 228
transaction costs 2312, 236, 237
value of knowledge revealed 228
wasteful duplication and concentration of research effort 22931
see also International Treaty on Plant and Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
intensification 102, 15051, 1924, 2016
interest rates see natural capital, loss of and interest rates
intergenerational equity issues 185
International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants 223
International Treaty on Plant and Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) 12, 220, 2245, 2327, 239, 318
compensation 2335
facilitated access to plant genetic resources 2356
heritage germplasm 232, 2334
sovereign rights of national governments over plant genetic resources 235, 236
International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV Convention) 12, 223, 2256, 231, 234, 236
interspecies competition and resistance 1557
invasive species 352, 377
Ireland: potato blight 75
irrigation 10, 96, 102, 187
IS-LM macroeconomic model 3556, 3589
Isaacs, J.C. 304
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 284
Jenkins, G. 108
Juma, C 196
Just, R.E. 147, 15051, 153, 163
Kaldor–Hicks criterion 358, 159, 186, 25051, 2545, 269, 3067, 377
Karmer, R. 381
Kenya: Western Kenyan Integrated Management project 383
Keynes, J.M. 72, 360
Kirchmann, H. 195
know-how of value 137
Krall, L. 7
Kruger, M. 218
Krutilla, J.V. 69, 391
Kumar, P. 268, 30, 179
Laird, S.A. 252
land ethic 331
land use allocation and opportunity cost minimization of wild species conservation in natural habitats 14, 279300
comparative advantage theory 280, 283, 28590, 298
economic cost 281
landscape features 293, 2978
minimum viable population (MVP) 2812, 28498
negative externality costs 2978
oil palm production 282, 285, 294, 2978
opportunity costs 281
absolute 280
comparative 283
minimum private 294, 298
private 2823, 2889, 290, 2913
relative 280, 2978
relative marginal 290
social 282, 293
orangutan conservation in Borneo and Sumatra 28081, 2846, 291, 293, 2949
orangutan densities per square kilometre 2948
political pressure 2912
private economic benefit 2878
profit foregone per square kilometre 295
relevant conceptual issues 2813
size of area 293
timber and logging 285
trade-off function between population level and use of land for commercial production 2868, 2912, 2969
umbrella species 2823
land-saving (land-sparing) agroecosystems 1013, 114, 3879
landrace plant varieties 2356
Lei, Z. 238
Leitch, H.W. 122
Lindenmayer, D.B. 391
Lindner, B. 22730
liquidity preference 3579
Liu, B. 154
livestock and socio-economics of biodiversity loss 9, 11942
biotechnology 122
Brahman, Brangus and Indian cattle 140
breed substitution 123
buffalo 133
cattle 133, 134, 138, 140, 142
co-evolution 120, 140
consequences of livestock husbandry for wild biodiversity loss 1378
cross-breeding 121
dairy cattle and feed-lot beef cattle 134
decoupling 121, 1336, 140
densities 191
development interventions 122
diversity of livestock, reduced 123
economic globalization 12022, 126, 12730, 140
elimination of local breeds 130, 132
endangered breeds 120, 141
exotic breeds 127
extinction 120, 121, 1279, 138
feed for livestock 945
food security, impacts of livestock husbandry on 139
genetic introgression 122
grazing 119, 1378
hobbyists and enthusiasts 141
imports, availability and price of 123
initial choices of species 126
market extension 12022, 123, 126, 12730, 133, 140
multi-purpose breeds of livestock, loss of 1313
natural disasters 122
pastoralism 1378
pigs 121, 123, 127, 134, 1367, 142
political instability 122
poultry 123, 134
productivity and environmental tolerance 134
proximate causes of breed losses and processes involved 1213
rare breeds 120, 133, 141
regional-specific breed 127
Schwabisch Hall (Swabian-Hall) pig 127
sheep 138
specialized breeds 122, 123, 131
Swanson dominance effect 123, 1247, 1367
Swanson’s lock-in or path-dependence effect 121, 124, 1256, 131, 134, 140
tastes and demands, changing 123
technological development 12021, 122, 126, 131, 132, 137
uniformity of livestock 123
Vietnam: disappearance of local pig breeds 121, 1367
loanable funds theory 3558
loans 344
lock-in 912, 121, 124, 1256, 131, 134, 140
long-term biodiversity change, processes involving 15053
Lu, M. 1545
maize see corn
Malaysia 50, 390
Malthus, T. 72
man-made capital 35
Margolis, J. 69
mariculture 316
market extension 4950, 979, 12023, 12630, 133, 140, 318
market failures 48, 49, 304, 306, 308, 315, 3325
market systems 3, 4750, 111
maximin gain/minimax loss 63, 66, 768
Meijaard, E. 391
microbes 49, 135
migration (mobility) of wildlife 139, 30810, 322, 323, 327, 3334
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 26, 2930
cultural services 278
human developed and modified ecosystems 17980
natural resource depletion and economic activity/investment 3513, 360
provisioning services 278
regulatory services 278
supporting services 278
valuing and sustaining natural ecosystem services 363, 3656
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems loss 261
minimum viable population (MVP) 2812, 28498, 307, 3913, 400401
mixed goods 306, 319
mixed land-use 392, 394
modified ecosystems see human developed and modified ecosystems
monetary values 1846
moral or ethical sentiments 250
Moran, D. 246, 253
Muir-Leresche, K. 303
multilateral access 2356
mutations 23
Myers, N. 351
Myrdal, G. 125
national parks and protected areas 304, 318
Kruger (South Africa) 315, 320
Lamington (Australia) 2479, 310
Paluma (Australia) 249
natural capital 1920, 35, 72, 177, 3636
natural capital, loss of and interest rates 15, 34961
aggregate economic activity and investment 35053
biological capital 349
discount rates 349, 355
education 3513
exploitation 349, 3545
extinction 3524
GDP 349, 350
globalization 3512
interest rate as exogenous variable (microeconomic model) 350, 3535, 359
IS-LM macroeconomic model 3556, 3589
liquidity preference 3579
loanable funds theory 3558
macroeconomic considerations 35560
market size 351
open access 3535
substitution 354
technological progress 3513, 3578
natural ecosystem services see valuing and sustaining natural ecosystem services
natural habitats/ecosystems see land use allocation and opportunity cost minimization of wild species conservation in natural habitats; wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss
Nelson, R.H. 303
neoclassical welfare economics 269, 275
Neolithic Revolution 189
New Zealand 22, 130
Nigeria 50, 130
Niskanen, W.A. 267
nomadism (transmigration) 139
non-captive wildlife see property rights in non-captive wildlife and biodiversity conservation; selective logging and orangutan conservation
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 14, 324, 329, 335, 339
livestock 133, 141
property rights in non-captive wildlife conservation 309
valuing and sustaining natural ecosystem services 379, 38081
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 2678, 275
non-use values 49, 183
economic incentives for wildlife conservation on private lands 327, 333, 337, 339, 341, 345
livestock 119, 141
property rights in non-captive wildlife and biodiversity conservation 3058, 31012, 31920, 3223
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 2569, 263
Nordhaus, W. 75
Norgaard, R.B. 170
North America 120, 332
see also Canada; United States
nuisance value 317
nutrient
loads 191
loss 17980, 1878, 190, 195
recycling 182
oil palm production 456, 50, 130, 267, 282, 285, 294, 2978
selective logging and orangutan conservation 39091
Olson, M. 266
open access 230, 237, 239, 31314, 316, 318, 322, 3535
opportunity costs 172, 2545, 2634, 3057, 391
see also land use allocation and opportunity cost minimization of wild species conservation in natural habitats
option values 306
Oram, J.A. 223
orangutans 45, 789, 284
see also land use allocation and opportunity cost minimization of wild species conservation in natural habitats; selective logging and orangutan conservation
organic agriculture 1946, 206
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 223
organisms as assets or pests (liabilities) 358
Ostrom, E. 323
overhead costs 102
Pacific Islands 96
Papua New Guinea 21, 110, 312
parasites 49, 211
Pareto, V. 47
Pareto’s criterion 62, 83, 159, 266
see also Kaldor–Hicks criterion
partitions of biosphere, determination of status of 345
Pascual, U. 35, 183
pastoralism 1378, 342
patents 217
backlogs 238
biotechnology (biopatents) 220, 223, 22632
examiners, shortage of 238
patent walls 16061, 1656, 169
trolls 2389
see also intellectual property rights in human developed genetic material
path-dependence 56, 114, 121, 124, 1256, 131, 134, 140
pathogens 23
pay-offs 778, 104
payments for provision of ecosystem
services (PES) 27072, 327, 335, 37981
Payne, J. 390
Pearce, D.W. 6, 68, 246, 253, 369
Pearson, L. 340
peatland 45, 46
penguins 30910, 313
permaculture 1967
pest and disease control: declining
effectiveness 1112, 21019
antibiotics/antimicrobials resistance 211, 214
control techniques 210
economic nature of increased biological resistance 21216
monopoly and regulation of use of technique that declines in effectiveness 21617, 218
social choice problems 21012
social deadweight loss 21315
‘superbugs’ 211
user costs 210, 211, 21214
pest resistance 147, 151, 1567, 171, 173
pesticides 46, 96, 97, 187, 193
Phalan, B. 101, 388
Phifer, P.R. 148, 150, 153
physical capital 71, 72, 351
Pigou, A. 185
pigs 121, 123, 127, 134, 1367, 142
feral 22, 37, 182, 383
Plant Breeder’s Rights (PBR) 226, 227, 231
Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs) 236
Plant Variety Rights (PVR) 226, 227, 231
political lobbying 534, 166, 222, 225, 229, 239, 2667
pollution 352
polyculture 97
poplar trees and lignin content 1545
population growth 4, 72, 100, 115, 192
Porceddu, E. 108
Posner, J.R. 159, 186
Possingham, H.P. 391
potatoes 44, 169
potential Paretian improvement criterion see Kaldor–Hicks criterion
poultry 142, 211
precautionary principle 49, 84, 1589
pressure groups 321
see also non-governmental organisations; special interest groups
principal–agent problems 380, 382
Principe, P. 253
Principle of Justice (Rawls) 627, 834
prisoner’s dilemma problem 212
private goods 49, 73, 245, 306
private lands see economic incentives for wildlife conservation on private lands
production functions 1889
propagative material 734
property rights in non-captive wildlife and biodiversity conservation 1415, 16, 17, 30224
commercial rights to wildlife on private lands 31617
extinction 3045, 307, 316, 318
global rights to trade in wildlife 31721
importance and context 3025
indirect use value 305
landholding size 315
market extension 318
market failures 304, 306, 308, 315
market value 316, 318
migration (movements) of wildlife 30810, 322, 323
national parks and protected areas 304, 318
non-use values 3058, 310, 311, 312, 31920, 322, 323
marginal 306, 308
non-marketable 306
open access 313, 314, 316, 318, 322
opportunity costs 3057
rebound effect 30910, 31418
recreation and tourism 30912, 317, 320
total economic value 302, 304, 3058, 322
use values 3034, 3058, 312, 319, 322
consumptive 31115, 316, 31819, 32021, 322, 323
direct 3056
indirect 305
marginal 308
marketable 306
non-consumptive 31011, 313, 317, 320
user costs 308, 31315, 322
provisioning services 278, 3656
Prudente, C. 390
public goods 49, 212, 333, 371
excludable 227
pure 48, 306, 369
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 245, 250, 254, 257, 265, 266
see also quasi-public goods
public interest groups 166, 2378, 329
public policies 1037
Putz, F.E. 392
Qaim, M. 147, 153
Quandt, R.E. 159
quasi-public goods 245, 250, 254, 257
Raidt, J. 238
Rao, V.R. 108
rare breeds 120, 133, 141
see also exotic species
Rawls, J.R. 627, 85
rebound effect 30910, 31418
recreation and tourism
ecotourism 334, 402
farm-holiday sector 311, 329
property rights in non-captive wildlife and biodiversity conservation 30912, 317, 320
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 249, 250, 254, 256, 261, 2623, 273, 274
recreational hunters 329
Redpath, S. 331
reduced impact logging (RIL) see selective logging
regulating services 278, 3656
Renfrew, C. 115
research and development (R&D) 712, 238, 239
resilience and resistance 18082, 2045, 402
revealed preference methods 59, 256
Ricardo, D. 97, 128, 280, 290
rice 33, 456, 75, 155, 1923, 205
Rijksen, H.D. 391
Ringler, C. 1923, 205
risk-taking/risk-aversion 70, 76, 79, 81, 155
Romano, D. 305
Romer, P. 125
royal albatross 309
Russia 47
safe minimum populations 13940
safety-first approach 667, 789, 84
Sagoff, M. 179, 204
Sahara Desert 205
Sahel 106
Salles, J.-M. 2567, 261, 269
Samoa: taro blight 75, 83
scarcity 71, 72
Schimmelpfennig, D. 166
Scholes, R.J. 149
Schröter, M. 180
Schumpeter, J. 12, 47, 216, 218
Scott, L. 21112
Seasholes, B. 303
Second Report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 109
selective breeding and biodiversity loss 1534
selective evolution 210
selective logging and orangutan conservation 200, 386, 388403
background information 39092
deforestation in Borneo and Sumatra 39091
density of forest species and logging profitability 3947, 400
dominant land-use policy 394
illegal logging 402
intensity of logging 3934
light-to-moderate selective logging 401
minimum viable population (MVP) 391, 3923, 400401
multiple use or dominant use of forest 392, 394, 4023
oil palm production 39091
optimal land use sensitivity to changed parameters 399400
resilience and robustness of habitats 402
solution to problem 3979
spatial optimization 393, 396, 400
sustainable forest management (SFM) 392
umbrella species 393
self-interest 412, 54, 216, 267, 329
intellectual property rights in human developed genetic material 222, 2278, 232
self-regulating systems 205
shadow price 37071
Shand, H. 120
silviculture (managed forestry) 151, 1978, 200201, 204
Simpson, R.D. 252, 253
Singleton, I. 789, 294, 391
Sist, P. 403
Skonhoft, A. 31617
slash-and-burn agriculture 190, 1945
Smith, A. 128, 205, 382
Smith, C. 139
Snippe, J. 358
social capital 364
social conflict 17071, 251, 332
social costs 371
social deadweight loss 21315
social valuation 185
social welfare function 312, 94, 203, 276
social welfare indifference curves (Bergson-type) 2012
socio-economic processes transforming genetic stock and altering ecosystems 6, 4157
capital accumulation and advances in science and technology 457
geographical extension of human contacts and migration 435
government failure to reduce open access to resources 55
institutional considerations 5056
labour mobility and market system expansion 54
large organizations: shared decision-making responsibility between several individuals 545
market systems, their extension and biodiversity loss 4750
path dependence 56
political structures and special interest groups 534
property rights in new genetic material 513
supermarket chains and fast food outlets 51
soil
erosion 182, 187, 195, 196
fertility 196
nutrient loss 17980, 182
salinity 102, 190
science 46
Soini, K. 1312
South Africa 218, 305, 323
Kruger National Park 315, 320
sovereign rights of national governments over plant genetic resources 235
soya beans 44, 945, 169
spatial aspects see economics and spatial aspects of ecosystem use
spatial optimization 393, 396, 400
special interest groups 222, 225, 329
specialization 978, 122, 123, 131
Sri Lanka 310, 311
Asian elephant 306, 312, 328, 3334, 341
standardization of products 94, 123
stated preferences 59, 2567, 263
subsidies 141, 27071, 33540, 344, 380, 383
substitution 72, 123, 255, 313, 354
supermarkets 51, 934
supply chains 83, 85, 93, 97
supporting services 278, 3656
sustainable development and changes in genetic stock and ecosystems 67, 5986
agroecosystems: properties 813
alternative views about natural resource conservation and achievement of sustainable development 612, 713
biological conservation and sustainable development 7075
coefficients of concern for future generations 689
error about requirement for sustainable development and indeterminate decisions 656
expected values, status quo and conservation preferences 7981
hypothetical games against nature: precaution does not always favour conservation 768
maximin gain (minimax loss) 63, 66, 767
minimax loss (maximin gain) 778
minimax regret strategy 778
model limitations and assessment of proposed objectives 668
precautionary principle 7681
Principle of Justice (Rawls) 627, 834
safety-first approach 667, 789, 84
strong conditions for sustainable development 71
sustainability as a concept 61
uncertainty 6970, 7681
weak conditions for sustainability 71
well-being 62, 667, 70, 72, 75, 834
zero-sum game 768
sustainable forest management (SFM) 392
Swanson dominance effect 121, 123, 1246, 131, 134, 1367, 140
Swanson, T.M. 121, 1247, 134, 141, 31617, 352
Swarna Nantha, H. 267
Tansley, A.G. 178
taxation concessions 27071, 336, 340, 344
technological progress 3, 218, 237, 265, 3513, 3578
human developed and modified ecosystems 2045
intellectual property rights in genetic material 222, 228
livestock 12021, 122, 126, 131, 132, 137
natural capital, loss of and interest rates 3513, 3578
ten Brink, P. 261
Ten Kate, K. 252
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) 1920, 267, 2830, 31, 177, 364
Thirgood, S. 331
Thrall, P.H. 1920
Tietenberg, T. 62, 65, 349
tillage, reduced 147, 151, 205
Toman, M. 259
tomatoes 44, 169
Tonga 111
total economic value 2546, 333
human developed and modified ecosystems 1834, 204
property rights in non-captive wildlife and biodiversity conservation 302, 304, 3058, 322
tradable permits and environmental offset systems 27071
trade-offs 313, 1547, 259, 272, 368, 392
population level and use of land for commercial production 2868, 2912, 2969
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 12, 223, 225, 226, 234, 236
transaction costs 49, 54, 318, 3434
intellectual property rights in human developed genetic material 232, 236, 237
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 254, 265, 267
Trauger, D.L. 304
trespass laws 336
tribal groups/lands 11015, 2512, 303, 324
Tscharntke, T. 101, 103
turtles 30910, 321, 323
Uchida, E. 37980
uncertainty 49, 84, 264
and concepts of sustainability and sustainable development 6970, 7681
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 155
human developed and modified ecosystems 185
land use allocation and opportunity cost minimization of wild species conservation in natural habitats 291
property rights in human developed genetic material 2389
radical 126
valuing and sustaining natural ecosystem services 372
United Kingdom
fish/fisheries 332, 334
Industrial Revolution 351
natural resource depletion and economic activity/investment 352
raptors 331
Rare Breeds Survival Trust 133
red grouse 331
Yorkshire Moors 119, 183
United Nations (UN) 53, 115, 380
Development Project (DP): Civil Society Organizations and Participation Programme 120
Johannesburg Earth Summit (2002) 403
Millennium Declaration 403
Rio Earth Summit (1992) 403
United States
American Livestock Conservancy 133
feral pigs 22
fishing rights 332
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 157, 158, 161, 163, 166, 169
livestock 140
Patent and Trademark Office 223
pest and disease control 212
property rights in human developed genetic material 2223, 226, 229, 232, 236
property rights in non-captive wildlife conservation 3023
Supreme Court – Diamond vs Chakrabarty 2235
valuing and sustaining natural ecosystem services 3778, 381
urbanization 93, 110, 115, 121
use values 225
consumptive 31116, 31823, 334
direct 3056
economic incentives for wildlife conservation on private lands 33031, 333, 3367, 341, 345
human developed and modified ecosystems 183
indirect 305
livestock 119
marginal 308
marketable 306
net 344
non-consumptive 31011, 313, 317, 320, 331, 334
property rights in non-captive wildlife and biodiversity conservation 3038, 312, 319, 322
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 2546
user costs 21014, 308, 31315, 322
user-pays principle 221
valuing and sustaining natural ecosystem services 14, 1516, 36383
absolute values 369
Australia: cane toad 3768
Australia: fire ants 3778
Australia: prickly pears 3767
benefit or transfer value method 367
biophysical relationships 3756, 378, 382
China: desertification 375, 37880
cost of replacement method 3725, 3812
cost-side alternatives to demand-side methods 3715
economic value 3734
exotic species 375, 3778
food and fibre 3656
GDP 3678, 369, 370, 381, 382
global flow of ecosystem values 367
global value 3679
invasive species 377
macroeconomic accounting 370
microeconomic accounting 370
natural capital 363, 3646
objective costs 371
payments for provision of ecosystem services (PES) 37981
private costs 371
provisioning services 3656
public goods 371
pure public goods 369
regulating services 3656
restoration of ecosystems 375
subjective costs 371
types of ecosystem services 3646
water supply 3724
well-being 3646
willingness to accept compensation 369, 371
willingness to pay (WTP) 366, 36971, 381, 382
see also economic valuation
Van Huylenbroeck, G. 183
Vasco da Gama 44
vegetables 109, 110
Vietnam 9, 121, 134, 1367
Vincent, J.R. 391, 3923
viruses 211
Walsh, C. 227
water 193
dams 102, 187, 188
eutrophication 102, 188
flows 75
harvesting 192
hydrological functioning 1878
irrigation 10, 96, 102, 187
quality 188
run-off 102, 188
salinity 102
scarcity 103
supply 3724
Webb, G.J.W. 321, 342
well-being 34, 62, 667, 70, 72, 75, 834
valuing and sustaining natural ecosystem services 3646
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 249, 259
wetlands and swamps 289, 35
whales 313, 319
wheat 412, 44, 456, 112, 1923, 205
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 1314, 24576
anthropocentric influences 264
bribes 267
compensation 2512, 2712
cost-effectiveness analysis 2634, 2745
density of biodiversity 249
direct maintenance by governments 27071
drop-off effect 249, 258, 274
economic valuation 24652, 256, 25961, 2623
environmental degradation 263
environmental externalities 265
expected value, marginal 254
extensions of property rights 271
extent of biodiversity 247
extent of modification 25961
geographical location 249
government payments 2712
government restrictions 271
ignorance or lack of knowledge 264
importance of biodiversity 248
Kaldor–Hicks (potential Paretian improvement) criterion 25051, 2545, 269
laws and regulations 27071
local and global biodiversity 249
low-cost access 249
marginal value 254
market systems 265
natural changes 264
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 2678, 275
non-use values 2569, 263
opportunity costs 2545, 2634
optimal size of protected area 250, 255
optimal transformation 261
payments for provision of ecosystem services (PES) 27072
policy issues 26872
political, administrative and institutional constraints/failures 2657, 269, 275
private goods 245
property rights 265
proximity to population centres 249
public (civil) servants 267
public goods 245, 254, 257, 265, 266
public goods, pure 250
quasi-public goods 245, 250, 254, 257
rarity of ecosystem 2478
recreation and tourism 249, 250, 254, 256, 261, 2623, 273, 274
revealed preference methods (e.g. travel cost methods) 256
risk-taking 264
size of ecosystem/protected area 250
social conflict 251
social constraints 275
social and cultural influences 250
socio-economic reasons for socially detrimental alterations 2648
stated preferences 2567, 263
stated values 258, 2734
substitutability of commodities 255
time preferences 265
total economic value 2546
trade-off functions/values 259, 272
transaction costs 254, 265, 267
uncertainty 264
use values 2545, 256
valuation of material benefits for new commercial purposes 2524
well-being 249, 259
willingness to pay (WTP) 246, 249, 2578
wildlife conservation see economic incentives for wildlife conservation on private lands; land use allocation and opportunity cost minimization of wild species conservation in natural habitats
willingness to accept compensation (WAC) 185, 369, 371
willingness to pay (WTP) 185, 21819, 307, 338
valuing and sustaining natural ecosystem services 366, 36971, 381, 382
wild biodiversity and natural ecosystems: conservation and loss 246, 249, 2578
Willis, A.J. 1789
Wilson, C. 249, 257, 30911
windfall gain 234
Wolfenbarger, L.L. 148, 150, 153
World Conservation Monitoring Centre 11920, 139
World Conservation Strategy 280
World Trade Organization (WTO) 223, 226
X-inefficiency 238
yellow-eyed penguin 30910
zero-sum game 768
Zhao, J.H. 1478, 171
Zheng, H. 380
Zilberman, D. 158
Zimbabwe 3034
zoning 27071
Zwahlen, C. 14950

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