A Critical Assessment of the Clean Development Mechanism
Chapter 3: Will preferential access measures overcome barriers to CDM projects in Least Developed Countries?
As described in the introductory chapter, the CDM has been an overall success in terms of the amount of projects and the projected emission reductions that have been mobilized. However, its project portfolio is very unevenly distributed across host countries. China, India and Brazil host6613 projects in the pipeline, which represents about 74 per cent of all projects and of expected annual CERs. LDCs host just 105 CDM projects in the pipeline (1.2 per cent), out of which only 58 projects are registered (UNEP Risoe Centre 2013a). This uneven distribution of the CDM has been repeatedly criticized as it directly affects both countriesí expectations of receiving CDM-related financial flows and the realization of the second goal of this mechanism, which is to contribute to sustainable development in its host countries. Several studies have discussed the impact of this distribution on equity, efficiency and environmental considerations (Cosbey et al. 2005; Keller 2008).
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