Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change and Weather Extremes
Chapter 4: Implications for national policy on climate change
The previous chapter provided a short timeline of climate policy negotiations, focusing on key policy developments on international levels. It made the point that the initial focus of climate policy negotiations has rested on mitigation, rather than on adapting to the impacts of climate change. This chapter looks at how international climate policy has been translated into national and sectoral measures. Integrating the dimensions of the Kyoto treaty into national policies and actions on climate change has proven a major challenge to politicians, bureaucrats and regulators. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process has not been without criticism, and the translation of international policy into national outcomes, industry-level applications and local outcomes is a critical step to create incentive structures for organizations and entrepreneurs to mitigate climate change through investments in low-carbon technologies, processes and systems, and to adapt to adverse consequences resulting from climate change. However, are policies designed so that they consider the external and internal forces causing organizations to shift towards action on climate change? The following sections provide an overview over national responses stemming from international climate policy. This chapter highlights how international policy gave rise to the introduction of national measures aimed at mitigation, and then assesses emerging national measures aimed at adaptation. The chapter considers the impact of these measures on organizations and industries. The Kyoto Protocol asked Parties to implement domestic measures to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
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