Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change and Weather Extremes
The previous chapter introduced the concept of a ‘coping range’ as a framework that can be used for understanding the relationship between a changing climate and organizational adaptation. This concept allows organizational decision-makers and stakeholders (such as employees, suppliers, buyers, creditors or investors) to develop an understanding of which impacts an organization can and cannot cope with and which impacts will lead to vulnerabilities. This information can subsequently be developed into quantitative information (Carter et al., 2007; Jones and Boer, 2005). The concept of a coping range can also be expanded to assess current and future adaptation options and their outcomes, as well as planning and policy horizons (Willows and Connell, 2003; Yohe and Tol, 2002). Nonetheless, adaptation options and successes are difficult to evaluate – whether or not adaptation has positive outcomes can vary based on actors and the timeframes involved. Difficulties also arise as costs are usually relatively well known or assessable – while adaptation benefits are dependent on climate change outcomes and impacts, which are difficult to project. This chapter focuses on strategic actions for adaptation that organizations can undertake to broaden their coping range and details emerging methodologies to evaluate the costs and benefits of implementing these options. In response to evaluating adaptation options, a variety of approaches and frameworks have been developed which have improved over time. Older assessments, also referred to as ‘first generation’ or ‘type 1’ assessment studies (Burton et al., 2002), are often top-down assessments.
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