Mapping National Innovation Ecosystems
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Mapping National Innovation Ecosystems

Foundations for Policy Consensus

Amnon Frenkel and Shlomo Maital

Increasingly, researchers and policymakers alike recognize that innovations are generated by complex and dynamic national ecosystems that include government, industry, universities and schools. Because these systems differ by country and are strongly influenced by culture, effective policy and research strategies require a systems approach, in which policy consensus is built on a clear understanding of how each nation’s innovation ecosystem functions. Scholars and students of innovation and management will find this book an invaluable resource, as will innovation policymakers across the world.
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Chapter 1: Towards a national innovation system

Amnon Frenkel and Shlomo Maital


We concluded the Preface with the rather sweeping statement that according to many experts, the world innovation system is broken. To deepen our understanding of this crucial issue, it is necessary to explore national innovation systems, since it is at the national level that the most important pro-innovation policies are shaped. But what is a national innovation ecosystem? We begin by defining the general term “ecosystem”, and then proceed to examine the special case of national innovation ecosystems. We shall review the research literature, stressing research that takes a systems approach to innovation.

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