Mapping National Innovation Ecosystems
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Mapping National Innovation Ecosystems

Foundations for Policy Consensus

Amnon Frenkel and Shlomo Maital

Increasingly, researchers and policymakers alike recognize that innovations are generated by complex and dynamic national ecosystems that include government, industry, universities and schools. Because these systems differ by country and are strongly influenced by culture, effective policy and research strategies require a systems approach, in which policy consensus is built on a clear understanding of how each nation’s innovation ecosystem functions. Scholars and students of innovation and management will find this book an invaluable resource, as will innovation policymakers across the world.
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Chapter 8: The health industry innovation ecosystem of Ontario, Canada

Amnon Frenkel and Shlomo Maital


In this chapter, we will begin by describing Canada’s economy overall, and its competitiveness characteristics. We then zero in on a specific subsystem of Canadian innovation, the Toronto, Ontario, health industry innovation ecosystem. The methodology we developed is aimed in general at mapping national innovation ecosystems. But it can also be adapted to mapping parts of national ecosystems, so we have chosen to study a key part of Canadian innovation, related to health. While the ecosystem itself is primarily cited in Toronto, the capital of the Province of Ontario, it stretches beyond Toronto’s borders and embraces much of Ontario, especially since many of the programs described in the ecosystem are province-wide. (Canada has a federal form of government, with ten provinces, each of which has substantial powers and its own Premier.)

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