Mapping National Innovation Ecosystems
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Mapping National Innovation Ecosystems

Foundations for Policy Consensus

Amnon Frenkel and Shlomo Maital

Increasingly, researchers and policymakers alike recognize that innovations are generated by complex and dynamic national ecosystems that include government, industry, universities and schools. Because these systems differ by country and are strongly influenced by culture, effective policy and research strategies require a systems approach, in which policy consensus is built on a clear understanding of how each nation’s innovation ecosystem functions. Scholars and students of innovation and management will find this book an invaluable resource, as will innovation policymakers across the world.
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Chapter 9: The innovation ecosystem in Shanghai, China

Amnon Frenkel and Shlomo Maital


In this chapter, we first survey China’s surprising rapid economic growth, extending over almost three decades, and examine China’s shifting strategy toward innovation and domestic consumption-driven gross domestic product (GDP) growth. After exploring China’s global competitiveness and competitiveness landscape, we examine data on innovation and entrepreneurship, economic freedom and ease of doing business. We then present the results of our Experts Workshop held at Zhangjiang Science Park, Shanghai, to better understand the innovation ecosystem at the park and in the Shanghai region. Next, a series of case studies are presented, showcasing Chinese innovation in all its varieties. We conclude by summarizing the results and examining some of the key issues facing China’s efforts to re-establish its economy on the basis not just solely on production efficiency, but also creativity and innovativeness.

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