Mapping National Innovation Ecosystems
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Mapping National Innovation Ecosystems

Foundations for Policy Consensus

Amnon Frenkel and Shlomo Maital

Increasingly, researchers and policymakers alike recognize that innovations are generated by complex and dynamic national ecosystems that include government, industry, universities and schools. Because these systems differ by country and are strongly influenced by culture, effective policy and research strategies require a systems approach, in which policy consensus is built on a clear understanding of how each nation’s innovation ecosystem functions. Scholars and students of innovation and management will find this book an invaluable resource, as will innovation policymakers across the world.
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Chapter 11: Conclusion: A comparison of national and regional innovation ecosystems

Amnon Frenkel and Shlomo Maital


In this concluding chapter, we present a comparative analysis of the results obtained from our eight case studies – innovation ecosystem maps for Israel, Poland, Germany, France, Spain, Greater Toronto, Shanghai and Singapore, described in detail in the previous chapters. Employing the methodology we have developed (see Chapter 2) has generated the visual foundations that enable us to concretely portray of those nations’ innovation ecosystems, always keeping in mind the main goal – to achieve consensual understanding of the innovation system, as a basis for building effective pro-innovation policies. We note as well that a major focus of this methodology is to distinguish between supply-side and demand-side innovation drivers.

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