Edited by Alain Fayolle, Paula Kyrö, Tonis Mets and Urve Venesaar
Chapter 5: An entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale with a neutral wording
Interest in entrepreneurship education has been growing immensely over the last decade (Kuratko, 2005). The changes in society and in the economy make the capacity to act entrepreneurially a necessary ability for all individuals, regardless of whether they work in established organizations or in newly created ventures (Gibb, 2002; Sarasvathy and Venkataraman, 2011). Policy makers all around the world have begun to demand that universities incorporate entrepreneurship in their curricula (Honig, 2004).Today entrepreneurship should be offered to students of every discipline, not just at business schools (Katz, 2003; 2008). This expansion outside business schools does, however, raise major challenges to programme evaluators who want to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship courses and programmes. The measurement scales we use today are developed with active and practising entrepreneurs in mind, and the language used is often heavily jargon-based and hard for non-entrepreneurs to understand. This is critical when it comes to students outside business schools, as they cannot be expected to understand business-oriented questions in measurement scales before they have participated in an entrepreneurship course. As programme evaluations are typically structured as pre-test/post-test surveys, this raises the questions of reliability of these assessment surveys.
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