Handbook of Gendered Careers in Management
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Handbook of Gendered Careers in Management

Getting In, Getting On, Getting Out

Edited by Adelina M. Broadbridge and Sandra L. Fielden

Handbook of Gendered Careers in Management provides an international overview of current practice and theory surrounding gendered employment in management, illustrating the impact of gender on key stages of career development.
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Chapter 18: Women and leadership

Linda L. Carli


How does gender affect opportunities for leadership? This chapter examines the current status of women as leaders and explores factors that contribute to gender differences in attainment of leadership positions, including balancing work and family, the styles and performance of male and female leaders, gender stereotyping and discrimination, and the structure and culture of modern organizations. Women today hold more leadership positions than at any time in the past. Currently, in the United States, 27 per cent of CEOs (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013a, Table 11) and 52 per cent of all professional and managerial employees over all levels are women (ibid.). Women’s representation in government leadership has also improved; women now hold 20 per cent of US Senate seats and 18 per cent of seats in the House of Representatives (Center for American Women and Politics, 2013). Similar increases in women’s leadership have been found internationally. For example, of the 137 women who have served as presidents or prime ministers of nations, 75 first came into office since 2000, and most of them – 42 – in the last five years (Christensen, 2013).

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