Edited by Dimitris G. Assimakopoulos, Ilan Oshri and Krsto Pandza
Chapter 13: Managing structural ambiguity in collaborative R & D policy making
Fostering innovation and supporting management of emerging technologies is not only a challenge on the company level but becomes even more complex when it comes to policy making. Throughout recent decades, states have been stepping back from their traditional role as a supplier of policies, and actors from outside the traditional policy-making system are increasingly engaging in the policy-making process (Hajer and Wagenaar, 2003). With this, companies, universities and civil society organizations are becoming political actors, directly involving in the policy elaboration process (Fischer, 2003; Rhodes 1996). Especially complex and technical policy areas such as research and development (R & D) policy are no longer subject to top-down decision making but have become processes of negotiation and consultation among a variety of actors (Kuhlmann, 2001; Jorgensen et al., 2006) who draw on different and sometimes competing frames of meaning, diverse interests and backgrounds (Hoffmann and Ventresca, 1999; Hajer and Wagenaar, 2003).
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