Models, Theory and Applications
Chapter 6: Behavioural models (conative models)
This chapter aims to describe a set of models that are used extensively in social marketing. This set of theories is founded in sociological, social psychology and related domains. They are sometimes termed ‘conative’ models, meaning ‘behaving’ or ‘doing’. The theories often posit that behaviours take place in conjunction with affective-cognitive processes. However, the focus of this chapter is on how people behave in given settings, not how they feel or think. This is not to say that thinking and feeling are not factors in these models; it is more that people’s (past and present) behaviours are conceived as being more indicative of future behaviours than attitudes or emotions (McGuire, 1986; Gerdes and Stromwall, 2008). In social marketing these models are related to the behaviourism school of thought, which argues that people do not make ‘decisions’ at all but perform acts in relation to their previous experiences and within the social and physical environment within which they exist (see, for example, Foxall et al., 2006; Wilhelm-Rechmann and Cowling, 2008; Crawshaw, 2012, 2013). The behavioural models imply that people behave in a certain way and that they can be encouraged to behave in other ways, for example, by ‘nudging’ (French, 2011; Burgess, 2012) or changing the choice environment (Heimlich and Ardoin, 2008; Lefebvre, 2012).
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