Models, Theory and Applications
Chapter 12: Socio-cultural ecological models
This chapter introduces a series of models that we have categorized as socio-cultural models. As with other parts of the book, these models are not mutually exclusive from models that appear elsewhere in this book. We have classified the models as socio-cultural because they tend to focus less on the individual and more on the environment in which the behaviour is taking place. However, the individual is still at the centre of these models so they are not quite in the realm of the broader societal-level models that are presented later in this book (Part VIII). The shift in socio-cultural models is from individual behaviour change to attention on social and cultural factors that influence behaviours and the social issues in which the individual behaviour occurs. Social marketing strategies in this part may require upstream and mid-stream as well as downstream social marketing activities. That is, organizations, governments and societies as participants in social change alongside the individuals that are affected by the social issue. While termed socio-cultural for the purposes of this book, the models are also representative of the person within the social setting. Thus, an element of social norms theory pervades this chapter in addition to other theories of human behaviour in social systems. Socio-cultural models are those models that extend beyond the individual as decision-maker and include social and cultural factors in their dimensions.
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