Handbook of the International Political Economy of Agriculture and Food
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Handbook of the International Political Economy of Agriculture and Food

  • Handbooks of Research on International Political Economy series

Edited by Alessandro Bonanno and Lawrence Busch

This book tackles the central question of the political and structural changes and characteristics that govern agriculture and food. Original contributions explore this highly globalized economic sector by analyzing salient geographical regions and substantive topics. Along with chapters that investigate agri-food in North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia and Oceania, the book includes contributions that cover topics such as labor, science and technology, the financialization of agri-food, and supermarkets.
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Chapter 7: The political economy of agriculture and food in North America: Toward convergence or divergence?

Gabriela Pechlaner and Gerardo Otero

Extract

Much like the Chinese curse about living in “interesting times,” agriculture and food have become profoundly interesting. The level of “interest” is a product of the seemingly limitless contradictory dynamics that are buffeting both the production and consumption of food—the bulk of which are, in turn, driven by various economic imperatives—and the bland fact of our persistent dependence on it. On the production side, we have been immersed since the late 1980s into a slow and inequity-laden liberalization of agricultural trade, with its associated industrialization of developing-country agricultures and concomitant urbanization of formerly peasant and agrarian societies. A significant part of this trade liberalization/agro-industrialization package has been the state-facilitated entrenchment of agribusiness multinationals (ABMs) as central organizers and beneficiaries of the evolving international division of labor in agricultural production (McMichael 2009a; Pechlaner and Otero 2010; Appendini 2014). Transgenic crops are another key component of agro-industrialization and they play a significant role in the global accumulation strategies of these ABMs, while simultaneously weakening the invisibility with which they operate (Pechlaner 2012a).

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