Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Comparative Constitutional Studies

Between Magic and Deceit

Günter Frankenberg

Comparative Constitutional Studies takes a rich area of research and teaching and makes it attractive for the classroom setting and beyond. Every constitution has an interesting story to tell, and for this book Günter Frankenberg has selected vibrant examples that encourage readers to practice realism, demonstrate critical spirit and examine the dark side of framers’ reports and normative theories.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Index

Between Magic and Deceit

Günter Frankenberg

abortion 217

Adams, John 116

administrative law 288

affirmative action 28, 124, 246, 258–9

Afghanistan 124, 125, 132, 134, 144, 147, 224, 271

Africa 82, 84, 106, 117–18, 206

see also individual countries

Agamben, G. 277–8

Åland Islands 254

Albania 75, 125, 126, 129, 131, 134, 135, 152

social integration 205

Algeria 52, 103

Almendingen, Harscher von 116

altruism 58, 207

Andorra 135

Anglo-Eurocentrism 82–5, 97–8

Angola 145

archetypes 27–30, 90

codified constitution 39, 42–3, 44–5, 53–4, 55–6, 62, 168

constitution as manifesto 30–37, 42, 59

contract 37–43, 53–4, 59–60, 62

programme/plan 46–55, 62

Argentina 15, 131–2, 145, 150, 218, 267

Aristotle 116

Armenia 152

arms 57

right to keep and bear 148–51

ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 23, 211

Asia 82, 106, 164

East 100, 106

see also individual countries

al-Assad, Basher 1–2, 11

association, freedom of 215, 222

Augsburg Settlement (1555) 21

Australia 84, 106, 202

Austria 133, 173, 178, 183, 188

authoritarianism 103, 104, 106, 117–18, 207–208, 210, 267

conservative constitutionalism 99, 100, 101

de-contextualization 123, 125

France 177, 179

‘We, the Rulers’ 132

autonomy 44, 57, 97, 175, 185, 273, 285

cooperation and 251

cultural 241, 257

limits of 212

fragmentation 241, 251, 253–4

selective recognition of 258–60

territorial partition and institutional segregation 254–8

Bahamas 204

Bahrain 140, 144, 145, 280

Bangladesh 37, 124, 145, 146, 151, 216, 218

social integration 205

Belgium 133, 135, 143, 182, 183

Constitution (1831) 116, 166, 173–6, 181, 190, 256

exclusion and inclusion 222

fragmentation 255–7

Belize 282

Bhutan 14, 141, 200, 212, 220–21

bicameralism 172, 174, 177, 201

biomedicine 56

Blaustein, A. 76, 121, 126, 136, 154

Bodin, Jean 157

Bogdanor, V. 83

Bolívar, Simón 93, 100–101

Bolivia 7, 14, 15, 93, 99, 124, 130, 212, 254

coca 252–3

collective 103–104

defying transfer: ‘odd details’ 141–2, 144

forced disappearance 140

plurinationalism 144, 160, 234, 251–2

social integration 205, 209

socio-economic awareness 247

state of exception 281

values 58

Bonald, Louis de 106

Borges, Jorge Luis 196–7

Bosnia and Herzegovina 62, 202, 225, 226, 233–4

Botswana 133

Boutmy, É. 117

Brazil 101, 142, 147, 166, 202, 208, 209, 210, 229

social rights 247

Brexit 232

Brezhnev, Leonid 47

bricolage27, 28, 30, 31, 90, 142, 154, 155, 249

context specific after 138

nineteenth-century Europe 164, 169, 172, 176, 180, 191

re-contextualization 128, 130

bricolage, risks and side-effects 131–5, 160

Brunei 200, 212

Burke, E. 99–100, 106

Burkina Faso 15

Burundi 225

Bush, George W. 286, 287

Cairo Declaration on Human Rights 34, 36

Cambodia 132, 229–30

Cameroon 59, 160, 209

Canada 64, 65, 84, 106, 124, 202, 215

Cape Verde 123

capitalism 57, 163, 170, 242, 248, 285

industrial 56, 101

caste 98–9, 151, 216, 243, 259

centralist organization of state 100

Chad 59

checks and balances 22, 42, 59, 148, 174, 211

children 58, 143, 144, 151–2, 247, 275

Chile 134, 283, 284

China 14, 15, 52, 68, 84, 93, 104, 160

Constitution (1982) 52, 105, 206, 244

Jehovah’s Witnesses 220

partition 224, 232–3, 238, 240–41

duty to reunify 234

social integration 206

South Korea 231

civil society associations 96

class 58, 242–3, 244, 246, 247

climate change 290

Clinton, Bill 270

codified constitution 39, 42–3, 44–5, 55–6, 62, 168

programmatic elements 53–4

cognitive cannibalism 79

cognitive control 78, 89–91, 127, 153, 196

Cold War 104, 269

collateral damage 270

collective bargaining 215

collective memory 33, 141, 290

Colombia 68, 166, 184, 205, 267, 281, 284

colonialism 9, 22, 26, 33, 40, 82, 97, 98, 99, 101, 103, 147, 227

cultural 78

de-contextualization 123

defying transfer: ‘odd details’ 139, 146

exception, states of 272–5

internal 243

nineteenth-century Europe 164–5, 173, 185, 186

social fragmentation 248, 253

combat law 287

communitarianism 58, 246

Comparative Constitutions Project – Informing Constitutional Design 123, 126, 154

concentration camp 272–4

conceptual histories 21–4

conflict rules 60, 61–2

socialist constitutions 49

Confucian constitutionalism 100, 107

conservative constitutionalism 99–101, 105–106, 248

hybrid: liberal-conservative constitutionalism 172

consociationalism 225, 227, 257

constitutional courts 60–61, 129, 201

Germany: Federal Constitutional Court 119, 120–21, 129, 218

see also judicial review

constitutional monarchy 11, 14, 39, 100, 123, 132, 133, 143, 144, 162

France 3–4, 159, 167–71, 176, 177, 178, 179, 182–3

nineteenth-century Europe: models of 167, 176, 189

1791: civilizing the Revolution 167–71, 176

Belgium 1831: deconstructing originalism 173–6

Cádiz: historical compromise 171–3, 176, 180–81

pathways and transfers of 181–2

France 182–3

Spain 183–6, 190

constitutional rhetoric 13–16

contextualism 113–14

contract, constitution as 37–43, 62

cooperation and control 41

Magna Carta 38–9

organizational provisions 59–60

plurality of signatories 39

programmatic elements 53–4

security 41–2

trend 42–3

corporations and power 22

corruption 35, 266, 267

Cortés, Donoso 106

Costa Rica 131, 143, 161, 166, 267

Cover, R. 113–14

criminal law 124, 287, 288

Cuba 120, 132, 146, 151, 184, 229, 281

Cyprus 226, 240, 257

Czech Republic 15, 135, 202, 282

Czechoslovakia 29, 129

Da’esh 290

dangerous persons 287, 288

David, R. 82

deceit 26–7, 88, 89, 95, 97, 141, 160, 236, 278

narratives of magic and 10–13, 45, 196, 200

declaratory clauses 32

definition of constitution 19–20

democracy 20, 25, 26, 75, 79, 94–5, 96, 97, 160, 161, 164

consociational 257

de-contextualization 123, 124

exception, states of 276

ideology 89

militant 220, 284

military intervention 270

parliamentary 11, 123, 162, 187, 206, 277

political authority 201

representative 198

Deng Xiaoping 52

Denmark 133

design 27–9

archetypes 27–30, 90

codified constitution 39, 42–3, 44–5, 53–4, 55–6, 62, 168

constitution as manifesto 30–37, 42, 59

contract 37–43, 53–4, 59–60, 62

programme/plan 46–55, 62

architecture 27–9, 55–6, 90

meta-rules and conflict rules 60–63

organizational provisions: allocating political power 59–60

rights and principles: distributing freedom 56–7

values and duties: distributing responsibility 57–9

discrimination 22, 57, 124, 133–4, 151, 204, 214, 216, 220, 243, 245, 246, 248

Bolivia 252

reverse 246

urban and rural population 249

documentary constitutions 33

Dred Scott v. Sandford8, 274

Dupré, C. 81

duties and values 208, 209

distributing responsibility 57–9, 99–100

social fragmentation 248, 250

East Timor 32, 93, 131, 211

economic development 75, 205

economic modernization 147

Ecuador 103, 123

education 133–4, 210, 216, 220, 243

egalitarian constitutionalism 98–9, 204–205, 248

egotism 58

Egypt 266, 280–81

elections 22, 44, 59, 76, 158, 159–60, 161, 190, 195, 201, 215

fraud 266

social fragmentation 242

universal suffrage 212–13

elites/elitism 22, 35, 90, 97, 106, 134, 225, 236

constitutional 15, 20, 28–9, 41, 44, 87, 145, 146, 169, 175, 181, 231, 240, 283

merchants of transfer 154

nineteenth-century Europe 161, 164–5, 169, 175, 177, 180, 186, 187

propertied 11

emergency powers 125, 177, 178

see also exception, states of

employees 247

enemy law 287, 288

Engels, F. 47

Enlightenment 26, 163, 167, 249

entrenchment 202–203, 259

environment 54, 205, 208, 247

equality 97, 98–9, 102, 142, 168, 172, 204, 208, 214, 245, 248, 259

affirmative action 124

basic maxims of 212

gender 26, 54, 57, 99, 103, 208, 212–13

Haiti 248–9

neutrality 144, 146

universal suffrage 212–13

Erdog˘an, Recep Tayyip 266

Eritrea 228, 257

Ethiopia 228, 257

ethnically divided societies 58–9, 103, 132, 152, 206, 209, 212, 243

see also partition and fragmentation

ethnocentrism 81–5

Eurasian Economic Union 211

Europe 40, 84, 100, 106

Eastern 29

Central and 20

experimentalism in nineteenth century see separate entry

Nordic 106, 144

Southern 184

see also individual countries

European Convention on Human Rights 83, 124, 134–5, 204, 207

states of exception 280, 285

European Union 14, 23, 40, 42, 68, 83, 211

Brexit 232

Central and Eastern European states 20

Charter of Fundamental Rights (2000) 60

ever closer union 15

German reunification 236

programme constitution 54

qualified majority 202

sovereignty 159

exception, states of 261, 290

constituting

blanket clauses 280–81

constitutionalizing 278–85

model structure 281–3

phantasm and mystery 276–8

prerogative 276

typification 283–5

crisis government 263–5

demons and mysteries 261–2

disaster control 263

imagined emergencies 265–8

normalizing the exception 285–9

phenomenology of

colony, plantation and camp 272–5

siege, war, civil war 268–71

exclusion 221–2, 243

of non-properties classes 3, 22, 44, 178

of women 3–4, 22, 35–6, 44, 170–71

exoticization 80

experimentalism

in nineteenth-century Europe 156–91

transfer and see separate entry

experimentalism in nineteenth-century Europe 156–91

laboratory 164–6

models of constitutional monarchy 167, 176

1791: civilizing the Revolution 167–71, 176

Belgium 1831: deconstructing originalism 173–6

Cádiz 1812: historical compromise 171–3, 176

pathways and transfers of constitutional monarchy 181–2

Cádiz compromise in transfer 183–6

constitutionalism à la Charte182–3

plurality, agenda and sources 186

‘Great Transformation’ 187–9

ideological strands and projects 189–91

sovereignty 156–61

teleology and contingence 191

constitutionalism between 161–4

tenure 166, 176

France 176–80

patterns of instability 180–81

factualism 73–4, 80

family life 58, 207, 217

Fanon, F. 272, 273

federal systems 27, 95, 148, 152, 206, 211, 228–9, 259

Ferdinand VII, King 181, 185

Finer, S.E. 83

Finland 133, 205, 254

forced disappearance 140

forced labour 275

formalism 16, 113, 114, 126

Foucault, M. 198

fragmentation see partition and fragmentation

France 33, 63–4, 68, 158, 161, 164, 173, 174, 186, 188

Conseil constitutionnel120–21, 245

Constitution

17913–4, 22, 36, 43, 166, 167–8, 169–71, 172, 174–7, 179–80, 181, 189, 199–200

of Year I (1793) 35, 43, 177, 179–80

Charte constitutionelle (1814) 40, 166, 174, 175, 178, 182–3, 188, 190, 264

1830166, 174, 178, 182, 188, 190

194643

195843, 83, 202, 244, 245–6, 281

de-contextualization

Conseil constitutionnel120–21

Déclaration (1789) 2–3, 8–9, 22, 33–4, 35–6, 43, 60, 133, 167, 168–9, 170, 175, 176, 179–80, 246

genealogy of 116–17

private property 146

defying transfer: ‘odd details’ 138–9

discrimination 245, 246

exception, states of 264, 265, 266, 268, 281

experiment and tenure 176–80

laïcité245, 246

liberal paradigm and republicanism 245–6

minorities 245–6

sovereignty 157, 159, 160, 170, 176

freedom 95, 98, 142, 168, 198, 204, 248

fear of 25

normal use of 212

rights and principles: distributing 56–7

functionalism 69–73, 74, 75, 79, 112, 113, 114

Gandhi, Indira 266

Gargarella, R. 104

Gauchet, M. 117, 214

Geertz, C. 90

gender equality 26, 54, 57, 99, 103, 208, 212–13

genetic engineering 56

genocide 26, 250

Georgia 206

Germany 68, 83, 123, 160, 180, 182, 183, 186, 188

Basic Law 58, 61, 124, 125, 135, 140, 145

eternity guarantee 202

exception, states of 283–4, 286

exclusion and inclusion 222

legislative competences at state level 152

partition and reunification 232, 235–6, 238–40

political parties 219–20

social integration 207, 208

Brandenburg Constitution (1992) 41

Constitution of the Paulskirche (1848/49) 53–4

de-contextualization 123, 124, 129

Federal Constitutional Court 119, 120–21, 129

rule of law 120

East 232

Constitution (1974) 52, 241

partition 236, 238–9, 241

exception, states of 263, 265, 268, 271, 277–8, 283–4, 286

imagined emergencies 265

German Bund (1815–1866) 165

human dignity 202

Imperial Constitution (1871) 38, 60, 165, 183, 188, 268, 286

partition and reunification 224, 227, 232, 233, 235–6, 238–40, 241

political parties 219–20

banned 218

Prussia 173, 182, 183, 268

religion 216

social integration 206, 207, 208, 210

Weimar Republic 36–7, 54, 101, 147, 208, 210, 265, 283

Ghana 205, 206, 286

Gilissen, J. 174

global constitutionalism 115, 128, 134, 136, 142, 144, 175

normalization 79

transfer: narrative of globalization 121–7, 153

defying 136–51

Google Ideas 123, 154

Gouges, Olympe de 3, 35–6, 170–71

Greece 166, 175, 182, 183, 188, 226

Guatemala 151, 184

gun rights 57

right to keep and bear arms 148–51

Guttenberg, Karl-Theodor zu 271

Hahm, C. 117

Haiti 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, 13, 15, 22, 43, 158, 181, 185

21 ‘constitutional moments’ 43

defying transfer 139, 140, 143, 146, 151

egalitarian constitutionalism 98, 204

manifesto, constitution as 30, 31, 33, 35

ordering policy and society 200

social fragmentation 248–9

social integration 204, 205–206

territory and sovereignty 229

urban and rural population 249

happiness, pursuit of 141, 142, 146, 204

Henry II, King 148

Hirschman, A.O. 215

histories, conceptual 21–4

Hobbes, Thomas 149, 157, 279

Honduras 202

Hong Kong 233, 238

human rights 53, 75, 76, 89, 117, 270, 271

Cairo Declaration on 34, 36

conflict rules 62

ECHR 83, 124, 134–5, 204, 207

states of exception 280, 285

ideology 89

othering courts 78

transfer 133–5

UDHR 32, 33, 35, 37, 61, 135

human trafficking 275

humanitarian intervention 269, 271

Hungary 64, 93, 129

hybridity 43, 106–107, 130, 132, 137, 138, 152–3, 172, 176, 206, 241, 290

ideals 87

ideas 87

ideology 87–9, 104, 131

idiom and design

archetypes 27–30, 90

codified constitution 39, 42–3, 44–5, 53–4, 55–6, 62, 168

constitution as manifesto 30–37, 42, 59

contract 37–43, 53–4, 59–60, 62

programme/plan 46–55, 62

architecture 27–9, 55–6, 90

meta-rules and conflict rules 60–63

organizational provisions: allocating political power 59–60

rights and principles: distributing freedom 56–7

values and duties: distributing responsibility 57–9

conceptual histories 21–4

essentially contested and polysemous concept 25–6

imaginary and silence 24–7, 39, 44–5, 90–91

modern idiom 19–21

democracy 20

rule of law 20

use of term design 27–9

written, unwritten, printed 63–6

imaginary and silence 24–7, 39, 44–5, 90–91

imagined emergencies 265–8

immigration 42, 275

India 14, 15, 31, 68, 134, 142, 143

cows and calves 144

de-contextualization 123, 124

egalitarian constitutionalism 98–9

exception, states of 266, 282

fragmentation 225, 226, 258–9

partition 224, 226

social integration 205, 209

untouchability 151, 216

indigenous peoples 3, 54, 164, 187, 252, 254

individualism 103

possessive 41, 57, 96, 146

rights 57, 96

Indonesia 152, 202, 211, 259, 281

industrial capitalism 56, 101

inheritance 143, 207

integration see order from conflict

international law 135, 270, 271

conflict rules 61–2

Iran 215

Iraq 141, 152, 205, 224–5, 257, 269, 271

Ireland 32, 143, 144, 145

partition 224, 227, 231–2, 237

ISIL 290

Israel 11, 64, 65, 225, 233, 269, 285

Italy 119, 134, 173, 180, 182, 186, 202, 254

Ivory Coast 209

Jackson, V.C. 84–5

Japan 11, 15, 68, 139–40, 142, 146, 278

social integration 206

Jefferson, Thomas 41, 76

Jehovah’s Witnesses 220

Jellinek, G. 116, 165

Jennings, Sir Ivor 20, 154

Joas, H. 117

judicial review 43, 68, 69, 70, 95, 96, 198, 201, 280

de-contextualization 119, 120–21, 125, 126, 129

justice 133–4, 142, 198, 204

Kaganovich, Lazar 51

Kant, I. 116

Karume, Abeid 258

Kazakhstan 15, 152, 205, 206

Kenya 123, 134, 152, 258, 281

Kim Il-sung 54–5, 105, 234–5, 241

Kim Jong-un 55, 104

Klare, K. 102

Korea 117, 224, 227

Kosovo 31, 270, 271

Kurdistan 257

Kwasi Prembeh, H. 117–18

Laos 15, 206

Latin America 75, 84, 100–101, 104, 106, 267

nineteenth century 156, 161–2, 166, 185

US legal education model 129

see also individual countries

law and development 120

law and literature movement 92

law-rule 11, 20, 25, 26, 31, 44, 60, 95, 96, 199

states of exception 272, 274, 277, 278, 285, 286

lawfare 285

layered narrative 12, 90

Lebanon 212

legitimation/legitimacy 44, 64, 162, 210, 276, 277

meta-rules 62–3

Legrand, P. 113, 114

Lenin, V.I. 47, 106

Lévi-Strauss, C. 80

liberal or legal or rights constitutionalism 47, 48, 56, 57, 60, 69, 76, 94–6, 97–8

adult children providing for parents 151–2

Anglo-Eurocentrism 83, 84

Bolivia 253

cognitive and normative ordering 198

de-contextualization 126

defying transfer: ‘odd details’ 142

equality 99

France 245–6

ideology 89, 104

private property 146, 204

Prussia 182

reality-blindness 147, 248

social integration 204, 206, 207, 209–10

unity 247–8

liberal-conservative constitutionalism 172

Liberia 31–2, 33, 34, 36, 131, 150, 250

egalitarian constitutionalism 98

libertarianism 58

linguistic turn 91, 92

Lithuania 161

living constitution 65–6

Locke, John 149, 276

Louis XIV, King 157, 159

Louis XVI, King 3, 4, 170

Louis XVIII, King 40, 178

Luxembourg 143

Macau 233, 238

Macedonia 225

Madagascar 278

Madison, James 94–5, 149

magic 26, 45, 131, 133, 160, 237, 278, 291

narratives of deceit and 10–13, 95, 97, 196, 200

Maistre, Joseph de 106

Malawi 62

Malaysia 219, 229

Mali 209

Mandela, Nelson 6, 93

manifesto, constitution as 30–37, 42, 59

Mao Zedong 52, 106

margin of appreciation 16

martial law 125, 180, 264, 280

Marx, K. 47, 56–7, 106, 179, 242–3, 274

Marxist-Leninist constitutionalism 104–106

Mercosur 23, 211

meritocratic order 99, 100

meta-rules 60–61, 62–3

socialist constitutions 48–9

Mexico 101, 123, 143, 150–51, 166, 184, 185, 187, 267, 280

military 58, 103, 140, 161, 162, 172, 191

states of exception 267, 268, 269–71

minorities 57, 244, 245–6, 247, 253

see also partition and fragmentation

Montesquieu 113, 168, 171

moral conservatism 99

Morocco 144, 202

Mozambique 161

Mubarak, Husni 266

Müller, Adam 116

multiculturalism 103, 212, 225, 227

Musharraf, Pervez 266

Myanmar 93, 142, 225

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 211

naïve novelty 130, 132

Namibia 15, 124, 205

Napoleon Bonaparte 87, 159, 177, 178, 266

Nasser, Gamal Abdel 266

nation state 22–3, 165, 172, 183

nationalism 243

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 211, 271, 283

neo-liberalism 144, 147

Nesiah, V. 258

Netherlands, the 135, 143, 166, 173–4, 180, 188

neutrality 144, 146–8

New World Order 122

New Zealand 11, 64, 65, 106

Nicaragua 150

Nietzsche, F. 156

Nigeria 144

non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 154

non-properties classes

exclusion of 3, 22, 44, 178

normalization

and the other 76–81

state of exception 285–9

North Korea 1–5, 54–5, 104, 105, 207–208, 227, 231, 241

reunification 234–5

Northern Ireland 225, 227, 231–2

Norway 165–6, 247

Nyerere, Julius 104, 258

‘odd details’ 138–51, 230

cultural specificity 140–44

historical idiosyncrasy 138–40

political deviance 144–8

right to keep and bear arms 148–51

ombudspersons 70, 95

‘one right answer’ 16

order from conflict 195

cognitive and normative ordering 195–8

exclusion and inclusion 221–2

integration through conflict 210–21

balancing procedure 216–17

community 211

conflict theories 213

delegitimize 216

dispute matter 215–17

distinguish integrative from disintegrative conflicts 214–21

diversity 213

methods used in struggle 217–19

nation 211

normative theories 211–12

relationship between disputants 219–21

relativize 216

state organization 211

supra-, trans- or international integration 211

universal suffrage 212–13

violence banned 218

ordering polity and society 199–201

political authority 201–203

social integration 203, 243

coercion and persuasion 207–10

coordination and cooperation 203–206

organizational provisions: allocating political power 59–60

organized crime 287, 288

orientalism 78, 273

originalist narrative 115–17, 176

othering and normalization 76–81

Otto, King 182

Pakistan 20, 145, 151, 216, 218, 219, 266

Palestine 224, 226, 285

Papua New Guinea 15, 61, 62, 93, 142, 145, 206

national territory 230

Paraguay 140

parallel societies 243

partition and fragmentation 223

cooperative disagreement: autonomy 253–6

selective recognition of fragmentation 258–60

territorial partition and institutional segregation 254–8

deep division 223–4

fragmentation 224–7

partition 224, 226, 227

partition and constitutions 233–4, 240–41

counterfactual narratives of union 237–40

duty to (re-)unify 234–6

models of political geography 228–33

narratives of denial 236–7

situations and examples 227–8

social fragmentation and constitutions 241–2

accommodating diversity 251–3

denial 244–7

recognition: from class to minority 242–4

rights-sharing 247–51

patriarchy 35, 41, 243

performative acts of world-making 33

Peru 160, 184, 247

Philippines 11, 140, 229

plan/programme, constitution as 46–55, 62

Plessy v. Ferguson8

pluralism 98, 212, 225, 227, 234

plurinationalism 144, 160, 234, 251–2

Poland 167

police law 288

political authority 22, 31, 157, 161, 189, 201–203

political constitutionalism 96–8, 104

adult children providing for parents 151–2

cognitive and normative ordering 198

France 245–6

political participation 133–4

politics of unitary comparison 74–6

Portugal 186

postcolonial theory 144

postmodernism 85, 91, 92

poverty 133–4, 141, 188, 191, 210, 247

power 165

organizational provisions: allocating political 59–60

power/knowledge relationship 198

preamble 93, 113, 123, 141, 200

Bangladesh (1972) 37

Bolivia (2009) 103–104, 144, 251

Brezhnev Constitution (1977) 5, 51

Cairo Declaration (1990) 36

Cameroon (1996) 59

China 105, 234

Cuba (1976) 120

cultural specificity 141

East Germany (1968) 232

France (1791) 168, 199–200

France (1958) 43

Germany 235, 238–9, 240

Iraq (2005) 141

lack of 133

manifesto elements 32

Massachusetts Constitution (1780) 41

Papua New Guinea (1975) 206

religion 145

South Africa (1996) 6, 93

South Korea 235, 240

Soviet Union (1936) 50

Spain (1978) 254–5

transformative agenda 103–104

Vietnam (2013) 105

‘We the People’ 119–20, 131–3, 141

precedent 93

principles and rights: distributing freedom 56–7, 96

printed constitutions 66

privacy/private and family life 134, 207, 217

private persons and power 22

programme/plan, constitution as 46–55, 62

property rights 22, 41, 57, 58, 95–6, 101, 104, 133–4, 143, 207

neutrality 144, 146, 147

unity 248

proportionality 14, 218, 270, 285

psychology 91

public goods 90, 204, 209, 215

Puerto Rico 184

Qatar 280

race 26, 124, 146, 204, 243, 246, 272–5

apartheid 206, 225, 269, 285

exclusion of non-Caucasians 22

Haiti 8, 9–10, 11, 98, 139, 140, 248–9

minorities and anti-discrimination rights 57

reciprocity 211, 219

reductionism 71, 90

referenda 43, 59, 161, 200, 201

refugees 275

regional constitutional ideas 98, 106, 151

religion 58, 103, 116, 142–3, 144–6, 152, 162

Belgium 255

Bhutan 220

civil 208

entrenchment 202

fragmentation 225, 243, 245, 255, 259

France 245

freedom of 124, 182, 216

fundamentalist claims 215

India 144, 259

Jehovah’s Witnesses 220

recognition of difference 212

Spain 172

republicanism see political constitutionalism

responsibility to protect 271

rhetoric, constitutional 13–16

rights 170, 172, 177, 198, 201, 204, 208

individualism 57

and principles: distributing freedom 56–7, 96

socio-economic 246–7, 248

transfer 133–4

UK: Human Rights Act (1998) 134–5

unity by rights-sharing 247–51

Roca, Julio 164

Romania 61, 135, 182, 247

Rousseau, J.-J. 40, 44, 97, 117, 167, 176, 179

Rudden, B. 83

rule of law 20, 23, 25, 69, 75, 133, 201

de-contextualization 120

ethnocentrism 82

normalization 79

socialist constitutions 53

state of exception 276

Russia 4–5, 38, 49, 125, 173, 183

Constitutional Court 129

Jehovah’s Witnesses 220

military interventions 269

Russian Federation

Constitution (1993) 51, 83–4, 143–4, 152, 246–7

Rwanda 141, 225, 250–51

Sacco, R. 73, 80

as-Sadat, Anwar 266

Said, E. 77–8, 115, 128, 168

Saint-Domingue 22, 139, 229

Sardinia 182, 186

Saudi Arabia 14, 142–3, 144, 200, 212

Schlesinger, R. 73, 80

Schmidt, Helmut 263

Schmitt, Carl 25, 262, 263, 276–8, 282

secularity 144–6, 187, 245

self-defence 149, 151, 279

self-preservation, right to 279

self-rule 20, 25, 26, 60, 95, 132, 159, 160, 161, 201

republicanism or political constitutionalism 96

social fragmentation 241, 253

separation of powers 14, 22, 25, 27, 76, 95, 133, 152, 162, 168, 170, 174, 177, 189, 201, 211, 263

Serbia 160, 188

sexual contract 41, 171

Shari’ah 129

Sicily 165–6, 186

Sierra Leone 160

sign language 254

silence and imaginary 24–7, 39, 44–5, 90–91

Singapore 100

slaves/slavery 4, 7–10, 12, 22, 26, 98, 139, 146, 149, 173, 272–5, 285

Slovakia 135

social constitutionalism 101, 204–205, 248

social construction 73

social contract 39, 40–41, 44, 117, 176, 179, 211

social fragmentation see partition and fragmentation

social insurance 210

social integration see order from conflict

social movements 20, 24, 26, 126, 154, 186

socialist constitutions 5–6, 46–53, 54–5, 89, 104, 134, 143, 166, 248

historical materialism 48, 51, 53, 153

instrumentalism 46

rights and duties 48

topics avoided 53

societal constitutionalism 23

solidarity 103, 210, 221

social 58

South Africa 6–7, 68, 93, 202, 225, 234

apartheid 206, 225, 269, 285

constitutionalism

egalitarian 98, 99

transformative 101–102

exception, states of 269, 282, 285

social integration 206, 208

social rights 247

transfer 120–21, 123

resistant 136

South Korea 125, 142, 146, 161, 227, 280

partition 240

counterfactual narrative of union 240

territorial definition 230–31

unification scheme 235

South Sudan 144, 227, 230, 248

sovereignty 64, 132

nineteenth-century Europe 156–61, 167, 170, 172, 173, 174–5, 176, 180, 181, 182, 183, 187, 189, 190

parliamentary 64

political constitutionalism 97

Soviet Union 4–6, 11, 14, 38, 47–51, 239, 241

Constitution

19245, 49, 246

19365–6, 50, 83–4

19775, 49, 51, 83–4, 143

manifesto, constitution as 34, 35, 37

Spain 180, 182, 183, 186, 189, 225

Cádiz Constitution166, 171–3, 175, 176, 180–81, 182, 188, 255

transfer 183–6, 190

fragmentation 247, 254–5

Sri Lanka 124, 151, 216, 225, 248, 259–60

Stalin, J. 49–51, 54

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 36

structuralism 73–4, 79–80

subsidiarity 211

Sudan 224, 227

supranational courts of human rights 62

supranational law 61

Suriname 204

surveillance 56, 264, 279, 288–9

Swaziland 152

Sweden 188

Switzerland 135, 160, 213, 229, 257

Constitution (1874) 38, 42, 188

transfer 129, 131–2, 150

symbolism 25–6

Syria 1–2, 11

Taiwan 233, 234, 237, 238, 240–41

Tajikistan 206

Tanzania 52, 53, 59, 104, 257–8

taxes 58, 215

taxonomies 79, 196, 198

territorial security 42

terrorism 264, 266, 271, 283, 286, 287, 288

Thailand 141

theory and method: comparing constitutions 67

constituting the other: normalization 76–81

ethnocentrism 81–5

narrative, comparison as 85

cognitive control and more 89–91

comparison and writing 86–7

contingency 91–3

ideology 87–9

politics of unitary comparison 74–6

similarity or difference 67–9, 79, 84

functionalist mindset 69–73, 79

structuralism and factualism 73–4, 79–80

varieties of constitutionalism 94–107, 172

conservative 99–101, 105–106, 248

egalitarian 98–9, 204–205, 248

liberal or legal or rights see separate entry

Marxist-Leninist 104–106

political 96–8, 104, 151–2, 198, 245–6

regional 98, 106, 151

social 101, 204–205, 248

transformative 7, 46, 94, 101–104, 153, 210

Tocqueville, A. de 25, 44, 221

Tonga 142, 143, 145–6

transfer and experimentalism 20–21, 66, 85, 111

comparing transfers 111–12

initial circumstances 115–18

‘transfer’ 112–15

de-contextualization 117, 118–21

cognitive control 127

expertise and experienced staff 126

formalization 119, 138

globalization narrative 121–7

idealization 119, 138

IKEA metaphor 117

reification 118–19, 138

‘We the people’ 119–20

defying transfer: resisting globalization 136–8

cultural specificity 140–44

historical idiosyncrasy 138–40

identifying ‘odd details’ 138–51, 230

political deviance 144–8

right to keep and bear arms 148–51

items: local, regional, global 151–3

merchants of transfer 154–5

re-contextualization 117, 127–31, 154, 155, 169

bad fit or missing links 129–30

bricolage, risks and side-effects 131–5

immuno-reactions 128–9

‘We the People’ 119–20, 131–3, 141

transformative constitutionalism 7, 46, 94, 101–104, 153, 210

transnational law 61

transparency 279

transplant 112–15, 126, 130, 133, 134, 136, 155

travelling theory 115–16, 118, 128

trumps, rights as 56

Tunisia 205, 208, 209

Turkey 202, 226, 265, 266, 269, 280

Tushnet, M. 84–5

Uganda 258

Ukraine 271, 290

United Arab Emirates 132, 212

United Kingdom 11, 30, 33, 68, 83, 84, 119, 174, 178

Bill of Rights (1689) 149

Brexit 232

de-contextualization

rule of law 120

Habeas Corpus (1679) 21

Human Rights Act (1998) 64, 134–5

legal education 85

Magna Carta (1215) 21, 38–9

nineteenth-century Europe and English constitutionalism 189–90

semi-codified 64–5

sovereignty 157, 158, 190

United Nations 228

Charter 140, 202

Security Council 202, 271

United States 14, 15, 22, 63–4, 68, 76, 83, 84, 106, 185

arms, right to keep and bear 148–59

defying transfer 150–51

Articles of Confederation (1781) 39, 41–2

Articles of Federation 39–40

Bill of Rights (1791) 60

codified/legislated constitution 43

contract, constitution as 39, 41–2, 43

de-contextualization

‘We the People’ 119–20

Declaration of Independence (1776) 30, 34, 35, 41, 159, 169, 228

exclusion of women 36

pursuit of happiness 142, 146

religion 145

exception, states of 269–70, 274, 279, 280, 286, 287–8

export of legal education model 129

federal system 148, 206, 228–9

Guantánamo 219, 279, 287–8

legal education 85, 129

liberal constitutionalism 94–5

Massachusetts (1780) 11, 41, 116, 142, 146

right to keep and bear arms 148

military interventions 269

narrativity 93

Nineteenth Amendment 212

Patriot Act 2001266–7

Pennsylvania (1776) 14, 21, 149

re-contextualization

‘We the People’ 131–3

Second Amendment 148–50

defying transfer 150–51

separation of powers 202

slavery 8

social integration 206

sovereignty 158, 160

supermajority 202

Thirteenth Amendment 8

transcendence 145

Virginia (1776) 22, 30–31, 34, 119, 159, 169

‘We the People’ 43, 119–20, 131–3

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 32, 33, 35, 37, 61, 135

unwritten constitution 11, 64–6, 134

Uzbekistan 152, 206

values and duties 208, 209

distributing responsibility 57–9, 99–100

social fragmentation 248, 250

Vatican City 212

Vattel, E. de 14

Venezuela 184, 267

Venice Commission 20

Vietnam 52, 53, 93, 104, 105, 141, 147–8

Jehovah’s Witnesses 220

partition 224, 228

social integration 205, 210

war 270, 271

vote, right to 212–13

Vyshinsky, Andrei 51

war 269–71

Washington, George 93

Watson, A. 112–13, 114, 130

Weber, M. 242

Weimar Republic 36–7, 54, 101, 147, 208, 210, 265, 283

welfare state 58, 208

White, H. 91–2

Wilson, Woodrow 270

women 57, 205, 217, 243, 275

equality 26, 54, 57, 99, 103, 208, 212–13

exclusion of 3–4, 22, 35–6, 44, 170–171

right to vote 212–13

work/workers 4, 48, 147, 206, 247, 275

world constitutionalism 121

see also global constitutionalism

written, unwritten, printed 63–6

Yemen 224, 228, 247, 259

Yugoslavia 228, 270

Zambia 248, 259

Zanzibar 258

Zimbabwe 206, 249, 280