Subnational Partnerships for Sustainable Development
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Subnational Partnerships for Sustainable Development

Transatlantic Cooperation between the United States and Germany

Holley Andrea Ralston

This fascinating volume examines the recent increase in subnational environmental policy agreements between different countries, with a particular focus on Germany and the US. Holley Ralston explores why international environmental partnerships are forming at the state level and the factors that both aid and inhibit their long-term success.
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Chapter 8: California and North Rhine-Westphalia (2004)

Transatlantic Cooperation between the United States and Germany

Holley Andrea Ralston


On 17 November 2004, in Sacramento, the Chairman of the California Air Resources Board (CARB), Dr Alan Lloyd, and the Minister of the Ministry of Transport, Energy and Spatial Planning of North RhineñWestphalia (NRW), Dr Axel Horstmann, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to ëhelp accelerate the development of hydrogen and fuel cells [technology worldwide] and foster greater links between NRW and Californiaí (CARB and MESP, 2004). The agreementís mechanisms included: ënetworking; information exchange and establishment of partnerships between the parties; research and science collaboration; consistent codes and standards; demonstration of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies; and education of . . . respective public and business on the benefits of hydrogen and fuel cellsí (CARB and MESP, 2004). The rationale for this match-up was that both states have high-level aims regarding hydrogen and fuel cells. Moreover, both are leaders in the development and advancement of this technology: California is a ëleading contributor to the international progress of hydrogen and fuel cellsí and NRW ëis a well-known locationí for such technologies in Europe. The drive to be such leaders was because it would result in potential environmental, economic, security and societal benefits, including ëa sustainable economic development and the creation of export markets for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, an increasing independence of fossil fuels, cleaner air, lower health care costs, reduced GHGs [greenhouse gases] as well as a sustainable developmentí (CARB and MESP, 2004).

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