Edited by Robert Geyer and Paul Cairney
Chapter 12: The role of models in bridging expert and lay knowledge in policy-making activities
As with other societal organizations, governmental systems, currently exposed to the same social, economic, geopolitical and institutional pressures, will need to adapt and make major changes to their systems. Since the last decade, a number of processes have been at work in concocting a radically different policy background that has also been popularized as e-government and e-governance transformations (Gil-Garcia, 2012; Scholl, 2003). Transformations associated with responsibility enhancement are of utmost relevance, as they in fact urge public administration to improve its overall production processes by means of ICT, while also designing, managing and accounting for policy actions in innovative ways (Peach, 2004; Johnston, 2010; OECD, 2011; van Veenstra et al., 2010). Increasingly, incomplete knowledge and uncertainty are recognized as a main source of the problems faced by policy-making. Not only does there exist an intrinsic difficulty in knowing the whole and detailed aspects of a social system, but also the complexity of social patterns makes behaviour unpredictable (Conklin, 2006). To cope with this problem, various solutions have been proposed such as, for instance, risk analysis, portfolio differentiation, and so on.
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