Handbook of Regulatory Impact Assessment
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Handbook of Regulatory Impact Assessment

Edited by Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli

This comparative Handbook provides a pioneering and comprehensive account of regulatory impact assessment – the main instrument used by governments and regulators to appraise the likely effects of their policy proposals. Renowned international scholars and practitioners describe the substance of impact assessment, situating it in its proper theoretical traditions and scrutinizing its usage across countries, policy sectors, and policy instruments. The Handbook of Regulatory Impact Assessment will undoubtedly be of great value to practitioners and also scholars with its wealth of detail and lessons to be learned.
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Chapter 23: Australia and New Zealand

Peter G.H. Carroll


Recent reviews of the New Zealand and Australian systems of impact assessment (IA) have come to strikingly similar conclusions, indicating that, in summary, they have a variety of shortcomings in system design, major gaps between IA principles and practice, are often little more than an afterthought in the policy development process and a compliance exercise, little used and little valued. This chapter compares the Australian and New Zealand systems and their more recent development, finding that it supports the views contained in official reviews. It concludes that even though the formal, detailed requirements have been increasingly comprehensive in Australia and New Zealand, actual practice continues to demonstrate significant non-compliance with expected standards and processes, and limited influence on actual regulatory decisions. However, on a more positive note, the chapter also finds that the existence of ten different IA systems within the Australian federal state, combined with the close relations that exist between Australian and New Zealand officials responsible for IA, may encourage, if slowly, cooperative learning by transfer between jurisdictions of processes and techniques that seem more effective. Further, as a matter of conjecture, new or modified regulation that is well substantiated by a comprehensive regulatory impact statement (RIS) might also encourage the transfer of the regulation in question between jurisdictions, and vice versa, as well as the transfer of processes or techniques.

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