Handbook of Cultural and Creative Industries in China
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Handbook of Cultural and Creative Industries in China

Edited by Michael Keane

China is at the crux of reforming, professionalising, and internationalising its cultural and creative industries. These industries are at the forefront of China’s move towards the status of a developed country. In this comprehensive Handbook, international experts including leading Mainland scholars examine the background to China’s cultural and creative industries as well as the challenges ahead. The chapters represent the cutting-edge of scholarship, setting out the future directions of culture, creativity and innovation in China. Combining interdisciplinary approaches with contemporary social and economic theory, the contributors examine developments in art, cultural tourism, urbanism, digital media, e-commerce, fashion and architectural design, publishing, film, television, animation, documentary, music and festivals.
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Chapter 20: Animation industry in China: managed creativity or state discourse?

Anthony Y.-H. Fung and Vicky Ho


Globally speaking, animation is one of the fastest growing media content sectors. According to Research and Markets (2015b), the output of the global animation industry reached US$ 222 billion in 2013. Countries with a strong animation production tradition such as the US and Japan have maintained a strong position globally. Major animation markets include the US, Canada, Japan, China, Britain, France, South Korea and Germany. In 2010, Pixar’s Toy Story 3 established a record for the top-grossing animated film, reaping US$ 1.06 billion from its box office worldwide. In 2014, Disney’s Frozen surpassed the record with an international gross of US$ 1.27 billion, becoming not only the highest grossing animated film but also the fifth highest grossing film of all time. Apart from its economic significance, animation is a sophisticated form of creative work. Oscar (Academy Award) recognition dates from 1932 for animated shorts while animated features have been awarded since 2001. The animated films Beauty and the Beast (1993), Up (2009) and Toy Story 3 (2010) were nominees for Oscar Best Picture. Animation as a form of entertainment content has increasingly appealed to various audience segments beyond children, including teenagers, adults, and the whole family. Adult animated series like The Simpsons, King of the Hill and South Park, for instance, have become prime time successes.

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