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Constitutional Law and Regionalism

A Comparative Analysis of Regionalist Negotiations

Vito Breda

This topical book analyses the practice of negotiating constitutional demands by regional and dispersed national minorities in eight multinational systems. It considers the practices of cooperation and litigation between minority groups and central institutions in Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, Italy, Spain, and the U.S. and includes an evaluation of the implications of the recent Catalan, Puerto Rican and Scottish referenda. Ultimately, the author shows that a flexible constitution combined with a versatile constitutional jurisprudence tends to foster institutional cooperation and the recognition of the pluralistic nature of modern states
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Index

Vito Breda

Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islanders 7, 101, 108–109, 118–122, 125–127, 129–132, 135, 140, 187, 206–228, 233–235

and Aboriginal Peoples’ land claims 118, 122

Aboriginal Peoples of Canada 101, 108, 119, 121, 125, 127, 129–130

Aboriginal title 121–122

Act of Union 170725

Act of Union 1840102

Act Respecting Constitutional Amendments 129

administrative autonomy 122, 164, 202

Alaska 135–136, 140, 143, 187

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act 135, 140

Albert R 13, 33, 41, 44, 12, 154, 174, 185

and amendment process 1, 50, 100, 115, 129–132, 158, 209

in amendment procedure 87, 12–19, 178

in constitutional amendment 50, 76, 103, 127, 129, 133, 178, 209, 216

alpine communities 80

American Indian national sovereignty 148

American Indian Nations 134, 148

American Indians 140, 142–145, 176, 225

American Samoa 134, 141, 158, 160, 161, 162, 168, 169, 170, 174

and American Samoan identity 169

American Virgin Islands 175

Andalusía 53

anthropomorphic mimicry 90

Aosta Valley 73, 75

Arberesh 73, 98

associative constitutionalism 5

asymmetric system of governance 178

Australia Act 1986206

Australian Capital Territory 208

Austro-Hungarian Empire 81, 82

autonomous regions 48, 51, 52, 54, 57, 73–75, 80, 84

and Autonome Region of Trentino–Südtirol 79–81

and autonomous institutions 49, 54

bargaining process 53, 98, 187

Basque Country

and Basque government 57–60, 189, 198

and Basque parliament 57–59

and Ibarretxe plan 57–58, 60–62, 69, 202

Basque society 60

in region 34, 49, 52, 54–61, 69, 72, 132, 135, 190, 204

Belfast Agreement 29, 124, 199

bigotry

and Jews 17, 66, 230

and Lega Nord 2, 11, 14, 17, 63, 75, 79–90, 92–93, 97–98, 112

and media 223

and racial prejudice 220

and xenophobic policies 83, 89

Bill of Rights 168825

Bloc Québécois 102, 111

blood and belonging 66, 138

‘Blut oder Boden’ diaspora 82

Brenner Pass 82

Brexit 3, 14, 27, 32, 38

British Columbia 107, 118, 120, 126, 183

British Crown 101, 182

British Empire 197, 211

British identity 36

British North America Act 1867 100, 105, 110, 127

British penal colonies 207

British unitary state 29

café para todos 49, 53

Calder et al v Attorney-General of British Columbia 107, 119

Canada Act 1982 100–101, 127–128

Canadian identity 111

Canadian parliament 104, 129

Canadian Supreme Court 41 109

Captain Cook 207

Catalonia

and Catalonian government 68, 70, 71

and Decision no. 31 56, 64, 67–68, 71–72

and region 4–5, 42, 49–58, 62, 65–70, 72, 102, 104, 116, 124, 196

Catalonian parliament 70

Catalonian political parties 2

Chamorros 172, 174

Charlottetown Accord 103, 108, 115, 128

Charter of the United Nations 12

Charter of Rights 110, 114, 115

Chatham Islands 179

Cherokee 144–146

Cherokee Nation v Georgia 145–146

Christian Democrat Party 84

civic virtues 17

civil sector 66

clear majority 35, 104, 116, 117, 127, 131, 167

clientelism 79, 95

colonization 144, 149–150, 181–182, 206, 209–211, 213, 216

Commission of International Experts 5, 42, 61–62, 68, 72

Commission on Decolonization for the Implementation and Exercise of Chamorro Self-Determination 173

Commission on Scottish Devolution 30

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 220–223

common language 22–25, 66

community rights 109

concordats 10, 31, 60, 219

Constitution Act 1791102

Constitution Act 1982101–103, 105, 107–108, 114–115, 122, 127–129

constitutional amendment 50, 76, 103, 127, 129, 133, 178, 209, 216

Constitutional Futures 2, 25, 30–33, 39–40, 45, 136, 156, 163

constitutional patriotism

and Habermas J 1, 3, 4, 6–7, 15–17, 23, 203

and normative spill-over 138

and theory 3, 7, 15–16, 138, 141, 156

in cosmopolitanism 6

in thick patriotism 139

constitutional reform 12, 91, 97, 98, 116, 124, 156, 216–228, 233

constitutional values

and colour blind constitution 142

and contra-majoritarian principle 136

and democratic coherence 2, 6, 12

and equality 1–14, 25–27, 66–68, 109, 123, 138, 140, 142, 148, 150–159, 203, 219, 223

and normative spill-over 138

and normative surplus 138

and parliamentarism 27, 94

and parliamentary sovereignty 40

and political morality of the constitution 42

and written constitution 17, 19, 40

contagious diseases 210

contra-majoritarian principle 136

Cook Islands 179, 188–192, 204

Cooper TM (Lord President) 42

criminality 74, 89

Cristoforo Colombo 105

Croatian linguistic community 73, 98

cultural genocide 27, 49, 81, 82, 106

Davis M 214

Decision no. 3156, 64, 67–68, 71–72

Declaration of Arbroath 8, 18

decolonization 7, 19, 29, 163, 172–174, 189, 194–196, 199, 204

Delgamuukw 107, 118, 121–122, 125

democratic coherence 2, 6, 12

Democratic Party (US) 132, 155, 156, 165–166

Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual (US) 169

devolution-max 34–37

Dicey AV 25, 27, 40, 178

discrimination 221

dispositive principle 48, 51, 56, 71

distinctive society 103, 115, 116, 135, 177

District of Columbia 134, 154

Divina Commedia 20

DNA 126, 209, 230

domestic dependent nation 146

dyadic interaction 55, 67

economic agreements 61, 62

economic crisis 34

Edinburgh Agreement 35–37, 39, 46

egalitarian society 7, 10–11, 17, 20–21

electoral franchise 29, 151, 153, 166

Emilia Romagna 77

English identity 36, 37

equality 1–14, 25–27, 66–68, 109, 123, 138, 140, 142, 148, 150–159, 170, 176, 203, 219, 223

ETA 57–58, 60

ethnic cleansing 82

ethnic community

and uniformity 141

ethnocentric 7, 4, 16, 48, 56, 61–62, 71–72, 220

ethnocentric narratives 63

ethnocentric nationalism 4

ethnocentrism 15

ethnic group 81, 89, 126, 159, 229, 230

EU 3, 6, 13–17, 37, 49–50, 54, 64, 75, 138, 200, 201

existing constitutional order 123

federal institutions 117, 126, 141, 146, 173

Federal Minister for Regional Development 214

federal reservations 143

federalism

and in federal system 51, 87, 94, 98, 134, 148

in general 2, 41, 91–92, 98, 101, 110, 123–127, 130, 137

fidelity of the law 137

Fifteenth Amendment 151, 153, 154

Fiji Minister of Foreign Affairs 195

First Nations 106, 211

fiscally federal 73

flexible 3, 25, 32, 79, 158, 174, 178, 188, 192, 205

flux of immigration 89

fiscal autonomy 2, 30, 34, 37, 91

France

and French 2, 13–15, 20, 50, 57, 73, 77, 98, 100–102, 109–113, 116–117, 128–131, 150, 177, 208, 210

and French constitution 13, 14, 128

in general 19, 81–83, 101, 190

Franco F (military dictator) 49, 57, 73, 98

free association 58, 134, 179, 189, 190–193, 196, 198–204

French-speaking minorities 101

Friuli

and Friulian 73, 76, 98

and Nuclear Planning Group 76

in general 73–76

Gaelic language 33, 38, 46

Galicia 49, 52, 53

Garda Lake 86

Gellner ED 19–21, 66, 74, 139

General Fono 193, 194, 203

genocidal policies

and cultural genocide 27, 49, 81–82, 106

in Australia 207, 211

in Canada 106

in Italy 81–82

in New Zealand 183

in Spain 49

in the UK 25

in the US 150

German speakers

and German Reich 82

and Germany 19

and Nazi war criminals 83

in general 73, 76, 79–84, 87, 98, 138, 195

good faith

and Reference Re Secession 41, 64, 104, 116–118, 122–125, 127, 130, 147, 195

in negotiations 123, 125, 127, 130

Good Friday Agreement 153

Gooda M 214

governance 2, 7, 13, 25–30, 40–47, 52–53, 60–61, 71, 73, 79, 86, 88, 90–98, 108, 110, 115, 119, 122–125, 134–135, 143–145, 148, 158–159, 163–168, 171–179, 188–204

Government of Wales Act 1998 27, 29, 30

Greek speakers 20, 73, 97–98

Gruber–De Gasperi Agreement 83–85

Guam

and Chamorros 172, 174

and Guam Commonwealth Act 173, 174

and region 134, 158, 161–163, 170–174

Habermas J

and theory 1, 3, 4, 6–7, 15–17, 23, 203

ethnocentric nationalism 7, 4, 16

Haka’ 180, 204

Hart LA 1, 25, 228

Hawaii constitution 152

Hawaiian Homes Commission Act 149–152

High Court of Australia 130, 192, 209, 213, 223–234

Hindmarsh Island Bridge Act 1997 209, 213, 219, 225–228, 231–232

Hogg PW 100–103, 107–108, 110, 114–117, 120, 123, 125–132

Holy See 74

Home Rule 29

humanism 16, 18

Ibarretxe plan 57–58, 60–62, 69, 202

ideal constitutional polity 16, 20

identity-based constitutional claims

and rationality 1–3, 6–10, 12, 16–18, 21–25

in Canada 108, 118, 122, 127

in Italy 77, 79, 86, 88, 97

in New Zealand 204

in Spain 50

in the UK 31, 45, 47

in the US 136, 141, 142, 147–148, 155, 158–159, 170–172, 234

immigration

in general 3, 5, 84, 89–90, 116, 171, 209, 212, 222

in illegal immigration 90

Immigration Restriction Act 1901 212

Imperial House of France 101

imperialism

and Darwinism 106, 120, 209, 230

and effects 106, 150, 181–184, 203, 209–211

colonization 144, 149–150, 181–182, 206, 209–211, 213, 216

Indian Nation 140

Indian reservations 147, 157

Indian treaties 142

Indigenous Advisory Council 218, 219

Indigenous Peoples of Canada 103, 105, 106, 109, 125

industrial society 66

industrialization 23, 66

Insular Cases jurisprudence 159, 169

intercontinental travels 210

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 191

international organizations 3, 6, 17, 20, 195, 223

isomorphic mimicry 95

Italy

and clientelism 79, 95

and Italian constitution 12, 77, 84, 93–94, 124, 189, 190, 196, 229

and Italian identity 79, 88

and Italian parliament 43, 60, 85

and Kingdom of Italy 74

and mafia 88

and neo-patrimonial system 77

James Bay Development Corporation 119

Japan 22, 174

and Japanese American community 156

Jews 17, 66, 230

Johnson v M’Intosh 125, 145

Joint Ministerial Committee 44, 47, 219

Joint Select Committee 207, 211–220, 222, 224–225, 233

Joint Statement of the Principles of Partnership between New Zealand and Tokelau 202

jurisprudential ductility 142, 148, 176

Kahkewistahaw Nation 125

Kantian philosophy 7, 13, 210

Kartinyeri Nation

and Aboriginal Peoples 213, 225–229, 231–233

and Hindmarsh Island Bridge Act 1997 209, 213, 219, 225–228, 231–232

and Kartinyeri v Commonwealth 213, 225–228, 231–233

see also race power

Keating M 34–35, 58, 60, 64, 69, 103, 108, 112, 121, 135, 189, 191, 198, 200, 202, 204

Kennedy A (Justice) 137

Kingdom of Italy 74

Labour Party 6, 30, 38

Ladin Language and peoples 73, 80, 81, 87, 98

language school 114

Latino 141, 168

Lega Nord 2, 11, 14, 17, 63, 75, 79, 80, 88–90, 92–93, 97–98, 112

legislative sovereignty 40, 41, 46, 134, 171, 173, 176, 215

Ley de Cataluña 4/2017 70

Ley Orgánica 6/2006 49, 55, 63, 68

linguistic groups 58, 74, 76, 81, 158

Lombardy Region 86–88, 93, 124

Lone Wolf v Hitchcock 147

Lord Smith of Kelvin’s report 31

Mabo E 211, 213, 220, 222

MacCormick N 4, 21, 22, 27, 112, 215, 228–231

MacCormick v Lord Advocate 42

mafia 88

Magna Carta 21, 25

Māhele land reform 151–152

Management and Economic Stability Act 2016 164

Mandla v Lee 229–231

Manitoba 103, 115

Maori Peoples 2, 60, 94, 135, 179, 180–188, 204–205

Mariori Peoples 181

Marshall Islands 134, 135

matai chiefs 169

Meech Lake Accord 103, 108, 115–116, 128

meso-level governance 60, 191, 198, 204

Micronesia 134, 135

military area 161

Modern House Transition Teams 199

Morton v Mancari 140

multinational constitutional systems 111

Multinational Democracies 64, 108, 110

multinational societies 151

multinational society 50, 97, 117, 119, 125, 142, 180

Naples 92

National American Samoans 169

National Assembly for Wales 36, 37, 42–43

national identity

and civic nationalism 4

and dispersed nationalism 141

and ethnocentric nationalism 4

and modern national identities 63

and nationalists 3–32, 45, 59, 111, 112, 116, 124, 157, 169

and polycentric nationalism 16, 33, 46, 67, 136

in general 2–9, 16, 17, 22–33, 38, 56, 59, 61–63, 67, 102, 117, 137–139, 154, 168, 174, 176

nationalism 2–3, 7–23, 33, 65–66, 80, 100–114, 117, 128, 131–141, 156, 163, 172

Native Hawaiians 3, 5, 135–136, 141–159, 169, 172

Native Oceania Islanders 171

NATO 75, 76

Navarra 49, 54

Nazi war criminals 83

‘ndrangheta’ 92

negotiations

and the constitution 2, 12, 30–37, 45, 46, 56, 60–63, 71, 77, 85–87, 93–99, 106, 116, 121–124, 129–136, 141–149, 154–158, 168, 176, 179, 188, 192, 204, 205

in obligation to negotiate 100, 104, 109, 122–127, 130–131

in open negotiation 52

neo-patrimonial system 77

New Brunswick 102, 103

New Labour Party see Labour Party

New Progressive Party 166

New South Wales 2, 207, 221

New Zealand

and Audit Department 197

and New Zealand constitutional system 178

and New Zealand Government 193–194, 197, 202

Newfoundland 115

Ngatikahu ki Whangaroa Deed 186

Nishgas 120

Niue 179, 189–190, 192, 204

Non-Self-Governing Territories 163, 195

Norfolk Island 208

normative critiques 7

normative prescriptions 6, 18

normative spill-over 138

normative surplus 138

normative validity 20

normative values 14

Northcote–Trevelyan report 97

Northern Ireland

and Good Friday Agreement 153

and Home Rule 29

and Northern Irish Catholic 25

Northern Mariana Islands 134, 158, 162, 170–172, 174

Northern Territory 208, 222, 233

Northwest Territories 100

Nova Scotia 102

Nuclear Planning Group 76

Nunavut 100

obligation to negotiate in good faith 123, 125, 127, 130

Occitan Language 73, 98

Office of Hawaiian Affairs 150, 153, 156

Official Language Act of 1974 113

Official Languages Act 1969 113

Ontario 102

organic law 51, 53, 168

organized crime 92, 96

overseas territories (Spain) 48

Pacific Island Labourer Act 1901 212

Package see Gruber–De Gasperi Agreement

Palau 134–135

parliamentarism 27, 94

parliamentary sovereignty

and the UK 40

see also Westminster Model

Partí Québécois 2, 102, 111, 113–114

paternalism 107, 119

paternalist stance 146–147

patrimonial political system 7, 73, 80, 95, 99

patrimonial state 95

patronage system 96

People’s Party (Spain) 58, 59, 62, 63, 72

Plaid Cymru 33, 38–39, 46

Plan D 203

political morality of the constitution 42

polycentric nationalism 16, 33, 46, 67, 136

pre-Columbian populations 144

President’s Task Force 164

Prime Minister’s Expert Panel on Recognition 214

procedural rules 9

procedural system 16

procedures in modern democratic systems 9

proportional representation 184

proportionality 125

provincial policies 86

public consultations 200

Puerto Rico 3, 134–135, 139, 141, 158–159, 162–168, 173, 177

Puglia 96

Puster Valley 82

quasi-federal 2, 30, 31, 46

Quebec

and Quebec Assembly 104

and Quebec nationalism 114

and Quebec’s distinctive society 103, 125

and Québécois identity 102

and Quiet Revolution 102, 109, 112–113, 131

and Reference Re Secession 41, 64, 104, 116–118, 122–125, 127, 130

and region 2, 6, 27, 41, 57, 63–64, 100–119, 122–123, 125–137, 158, 163, 168, 177, 208

Queensland 3, 8, 207, 211, 213–214, 220–221

Quiet Revolution 102, 109, 112–113, 131

race power 209, 212–213, 227, 232

Race Relations Act 1976229, 230

racial discrimination

and clear majority 35, 104, 116, 117, 127, 131, 167

and Hindmarsh Island Bridge Act 1997 209, 213, 219, 225–228, 231–232

and Kartinyeri v Commonwealth 213, 225–228, 231–233

and racist narrative 160, 167, 211–213, 219, 221, 228

in general 216, 220–221

in Mandla v Lee 229, 230, 231

in section 51 (xxvi) 209, 212–213, 226–227, 232–233

Reference Re Secession 41, 64, 104, 116–118, 122–125, 127, 130

Realm of New Zealand 135, 158, 179, 188–189, 193

referendum 2, 4, 10–14, 30–38, 41–48, 52–62, 70–72, 87, 93–94, 102–104, 113–116, 122–128, 165–167, 177, 193–204, 209–217, 222–227, 232

Reggio Calabria 92

Republic of Ireland 30, 199

Republic of San Marino 74, 162, 190

Rice v Cayetano 150, 153

right to self-determination 8–15, 18, 58, 123–124, 174, 195, 198, 200

Roper v Simmons 137

Royal Commission on the Constitution 30

Royal Proclamation 1763105

Saint Germaine Treaty 82

Samoa 141, 154, 160–162, 168–169

Sardinia

in region 73, 75

in Sardinian language 73, 98

Scotland

and Scotland Act 199827, 31, 30, 35, 40–41, 46, 124, 219

and Scotland Act 201631, 35, 37, 39

and Scottish Devolution 10, 30, 34, 166, 198

and Scottish Labour Party 30

and Scottish National Party (SNP) 2, 10, 30, 39, 45–46, 112

and Sec 30 (2) of the Scotland Act 199841

in region 2, 5, 10, 25, 27, 30–46, 55, 102, 116, 124, 156, 196, 198, 200–202, 219

Sec 30 (2) of the Scotland Act 1998 41

secession

in Australia 208

in Canada 104, 116–117, 124

in Spain 70–71

in theory 2, 31

in the UK 36–37, 41

Second World War 15, 83

sectarian 27, 28, 33, 102, 112–131, 153

section 51 (xxvi) 209, 212, 213, 226–227, 232–233

self-determination 8–21, 58, 123–124, 174, 195, 198, 200

self-referential system 9

Sewel Convention

and devolution 42, 43, 45

and Standard Note SN/PC/2084 43

Sicily

and clientelism 79, 95

and neo-patrimonial system 77

and simulated legalism 97

in region 73, 75, 95, 96

Sikh 230

Slovene speakers 73

SNP 2, 10, 30–39, 45, 46, 112

social democracy 37, 46, 58

South Australia 207, 226

South of Italy 11, 75, 80, 84, 98, 99

South Tyrol

and Gruber–De Gasperi Agreement 83–85

and Puster Valley 84

and region 11, 29, 34, 43, 45, 60, 69, 73–77, 94, 98, 111, 151, 198–199, 203

and South Tyrol Joint Committee 44, 86

and South Tyrolean nation 86

sovereign association 113

Spain

and Spanish constitution 54, 58, 63

and Spanish nation 48, 50, 56, 65, 67

and Spanish parliament 52, 57, 59, 61

and Spanish Socialist Party 59

Special Committee of 24 (UN) 193–196, 198–199

Standard Note SN/PC/2084 43

Standing Conference of the State and Regions 86

statute of autonomy 52, 53, 55, 57–62, 65, 67, 69, 72

Stone Sweet A 55

Südtiroler Volkspartei (SVP) 79–80, 81, 83–89, 98

supermajority 133

Supreme Court of Canada 100, 104–105, 107, 109, 114–122, 125, 127–132

Supreme Court of US 142, 145–170, 176

Swiss Confederation 2, 22

Tasmania 207, 211, 228, 232

taxation system 66

Texas 208

textualism 225, 235

Tokelau

and General Fono 193–194, 203

and Tokelau Act 1948 193, 203

and Tokelauan Executive Council 203

in general 2, 5, 58, 135, 172, 179, 192–204

tolerance through law 81, 86, 98

Treaty of Paris 1763 101

Treaty of Waitangi 150, 179–186, 188, 204, 205

Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 180, 182, 184–186, 188

Treaty of Waitangi (State Enterprises) Act 1988 180

Treaty to Establish a Constitution for Europe 14

Trento (province) 73, 80, 86

tribal sovereignty 144

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada 106–107

Tsilhqot’in Nation 118, 122

Tuaua v United States 154, 160, 168–169

Tully J 8–10, 14–15, 18, 64, 101, 108, 110, 118, 121, 131–132, 137, 153, 191, 203

Tuscan dialect 74

Two-party system 156

UK

and parliamentary sovereignty 40

and the Act of Union 1707 25

and UK parliament 11, 29, 31, 40–41, 46, 101, 178, 202

and UK Supreme Court 41, 85, 161, 187, 190–199, 204, 221, 222

UN 12, 18, 29, 85, 161–168, 170–173, 189, 191–194, 199, 203, 212–217, 220–223

UN Charter of 12

uncodified 25, 46, 178, 186

unilateral annexation 124

unilateral declaration of independence 70

unilateral secession 70, 104, 123

unionist political parties 3, 92

universal values 137

US

and jurisprudential ductility 142, 148, 176

and US Airforce 173, 174

and US Congress 4, 133–135, 139, 141, 143–144, 147, 150–169, 171, 173–177

and US constitutional system 135, 142, 148, 153, 155, 164, 168, 172, 176

and US Navy 152, 172–174

and US Supreme Court 1, 125, 137, 138–145, 148, 155, 158, 161, 170, 176, 225

US territories in general 135, 141, 158–160, 168, 176

US Virgin Islands 134, 158, 161–162, 174, 175–177

Vatican state 162

Veneto 2, 70, 74, 77, 82, 86–87, 93–94

vernacular 23, 66

Virgin Islands 134, 162

Wales Act 201731

Weberian state 77–78

Welsh Assembly 31–32, 46

Welsh Labour 30, 38

Welsh referendum 204

West Australia 207, 220

Westminster Model 7, 40, 45, 179, 188, 205

White Paper on Indian Policy 119

Wi Parata v Bishop of Wellington 184

Worcester v State of Georgia 125, 145

xenophobic policies 83, 89

Yukon 100