Adaptation and Context
Edited by Anders Örtenblad
Where knowledge deficits exist in policing, incomplete information and know-how give rise to uncertainties that obscure prediction and execution. Performance risk and execution risk are lowered through knowledge transfer mechanisms developed to avoid and handle uncertainties. Such knowledge transfer permits knowledge reuse, and the recombination of existing knowledge is an important antecedent of uncertainty resolution (Mitchell 2006). Knowledge management strategy focuses on personnel resources, where the knowledge of each police officer as well as the combined knowledge in the police represent resources that are to be explored and exploited for better police work. The knowledge management strategy process includes developing a working definition of knowledge, developing a working definition of knowledge management, doing a knowledge audit, defining knowledge management objectives and strategy approaches, and implementing strategy with quality measures (Chaffey and White 2011). However, despite the opportunities presented by knowledge management, its integration to the policing sector has been somewhat troublesome. Even when the term knowledge management is applied in the police force, it often implies facts-based policing rather than knowledge-based policing. Facts-based policing ignores important aspects of knowledge-based policing, such as interpretation of facts by colleagues, reflection around facts by combining information pieces and contextual factors that influence the meaning of facts. Too often, facts in terms of numbers and names represent only pieces of a reality that needs to be mapped into a complete picture of knowledge (Luen and Al-Hawamdeh 2001).
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