Access to Information and Knowledge 21st Century Challenges in Intellectual Property and Knowledge Governance
21st Century Challenges in Intellectual Property and Knowledge Governance
- Elgar Intellectual Property and Global Development series
Edited by Dana Beldiman
Chapter 1: Public Sector Information as open data: access, re-use and the third innovation paradigm
Before examining the mechanics of Public Sector Information (PSI), I am going to attempt to place this recent phenomenon into the broader context of the history of innovation and creativity and of the societal institutions which shaped it. In this perspective, one way we may look at the history of innovation and creativity in the last two centuries is to give an account of how the ingenuity of individual innovators was gradually replaced by the organized, systematic and formalized effort of corporate entities. These may have been either private businesses or public research centres and universities, the latter having an inclination towards basic research as much as the former specialize in applied research and development. In both cases, the original paradigm of Benjamin Franklin-like individual creativity took the back seat while the latter, management and organization-based paradigm took centre stage.The case can be made – and is indeed being made – that in the last two decades a third, entirely novel, network-driven paradigm of innovation and creativity has gradually been emerging. The possibility of a myriad of cooperative research enterprises, which use the web as an instrument to bring together vast data sets accumulated by the different players and their insights, has become a reality.
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