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Form in Intellectual Property Law

David Booton

This book sets out to expose, analyse and evaluate the conflicting conceptions of legal judgment that operate in intellectual property law. Its central theme is the opposition between law-making by way of the creation of generally applicable rules and law-making done at the point of application through case-by- case decisions tailored to the particulars of individual circumstances. Through an exploration of form, the analysis sets out to provide insights into how intellectual property law achieves a balance between various competing interests.
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Table of cases

David Booton

Abbott Laboratories Ltd v Evysio Medical Devices UCL [2008] EWHC 800 (Ch) 225

Acorn Computers v MCS Microcomputer Systems (1985) 4 IPR 214 (Federal Court of Australia) 74

Actavis Ltd v Eli Lilly and Co [2015] EWHC 3294 (Pat) 225

Actavis Ltd v Merck & Co Inc [2008] EWCA Civ 444 128

Actavis Ltd v Novartis AG [2010] EWCA Civ 82 133

Adam Opel AG v Autec AG (C-48/05) [2007] ETMR 33 234, 235, 238, 239, 240, 241, 247

Aerotel Ltd v Telco Holdings Ltd and Macrossan’s Application [2006] EWCA Civ 1371 70, 126, 129, 132, 134, 139, 140

Aerotel Ltd v Wavecrest Group Enterprises Ltd [2009] EWCA Civ 408 226

A-G v Guardian Newspapers (No. 2) [1990] 1 AC 109 113

Allmanna Svenska Elektriska A/B v The Burntisland Shipbuilding Co Ltd (1952) 69 RPC 63 34

American Cyanamid Co (Dann’s) Patent [1971] RPC 425 135

American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd [1975] AC 396 84, 87

Anheuser-Busch v Budejovický Budvar, Národní Podnik (C-245/02) [2005] ETMR 27 240, 242

Antiquesportfolio.com Plc v Rodney Fitch & Co Ltd [2001] FSR 23 201

Apimed Medical Honey Ltd v Brightwake Ltd [2012] EWCA Civ 5 225

Apple Corps Ltd v Apple Computer Inc [2006] EWHC 996 (Ch) 237, 238

Arsenal Football Club Plc v Reed [2001] RPC 922 237, 238

Arsenal Football Club Plc v Reed (C-206/01) [2003] RPC 144 176, 234, 238, 240, 241, 251, 255

Arsenal Football Club Plc v Reed (No. 2) [2002] EWHC 2695 (Ch) 238

Arsenal Football Club Plc v Reed (No. 2) [2003] EWCA Civ 696 238

Ashdown v Telegraph Group Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1142 39, 44, 45, 113, 230

Association for Molecular Pathology v Myriad Genetics 569 US __ (2013) (US Supreme Court) 119

Attorney-General v Guardian Newspapers (No. 2) [1990] 1 AC 109 113

Autospin (Oil Seals) Ltd v Beehive Spinning [1995] RPC 683 216

Availability to the Public (G1/92) [1993] EPOR 241 151

Baigent v Random House Group [2007] EWCA Civ 247 206, 207, 216

Baschet v London Illustrated Standard Co [1900] 1 Ch 73 112

Beloit Technologies v Valmet Paper Machinery Inc [1997] RPC 489 225

Benmax v Austin Motor Co Ltd [1955] AC 370 34, 42

Die BergSpechte Outdoor, Reisen und Alpinschule Edi Koblmüller GmbH v Günter Guni, trekking.at Reisen GmbH (C-278/08) [2010] ETMR 33 243

Bezpe|$$|Ahcnostní softwarová asociace – Svaz softwarové ochrany v Ministerstvo kultury (C-393/09) [2011] ECDR 3 161, 165, 212, 221

Billhöfer Maschinenfabrik v Dixon [1990] FSR 105 216, 248

Biogen Inc v Medeva Plc [1993] RPC 475 81

Biogen Inc v Medeva Plc [1995] RPC 25 150

Biogen Inc v Medeva Plc [1997] RPC 1 34, 42, 55, 94, 150

Bleistein v Donaldson Lithographing Co 188 US 239 (1903) (US Supreme Court) 203

Bristol Myers Squibb Co v Baker Norton Pharmaceuticals Inc [1999] RPC 253 129

Bristol Myers Squibb v Paranova (C-427/93) [1996] ETMR 1 264

Bristol-Myers Co (Johnson’s) Application [1975] RPC 127 172

British Westinghouse v Braulik (1910) 27 RPC 209 225

Brugger v Medic-Aid [1996] RPC 635 157

Burke and Margot Burke Ltd v Spicers Dress Designs [1936] Ch 400 210

Cadbury-Schweppes Pty Ltd v The Pub Squash Co Ltd [1981] RPC 429 280

Cairnstores Ltd v Aktiebolaget Hassle [2002] FSR 35 170

Campina Melkunie BV v Benelux-Merkenbureau (C-265/00) [2004] ETMR 821 250

Canon Kabushiki Kaisha v Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc (C-39/97) [1999] RPC 117 100, 236

Cantor Fitzgerald International v Tradition (UK) Ltd [2000] RPC 95 205, 213

Carl Zeiss Stiftung v Herbert Smith (No. 2) [1969] 2 Ch 276 72

Catnic Components Ltd v Hill and Smith Ltd [1982] RPC 183 15, 209

CBS Songs v Amstrad [1988] AC 1013 216

Céline SARL v Céline (C-17/06) [2007] ETMR 1320 234, 240

CFPH LLC’s Application [2005] EWHC 1589 68, 69, 131, 133, 135

Chappell & Co Ltd v Colombia Graphophone Co [1914] 2 Ch 745 78

Chiron Corporation v Organon Teknika Ltd (No. 3) [1994] FSR 202 225

Chiron Corporation v Organon Teknika Ltd (No. 10) and Chiron Corporation v Murex Diagnostics Ltd (No. 10) [1995] FSR 325 79, 80, 81

Cnl-Sucal v Hag (C-10/89) [1990] 3 CMLR 571 264

Commissioners of Inland Revenue v Muller and Co’s Margarine Ltd (1901) AC 217 66

ConAgra Inc v McCain Foods (Aust) Pty Ltd [1992] FCA 176 (Federal Court of Australia) 66

Conor Medsystems Inc v Angiotech Pharmaceuticals Inc [2006] EWHC 260 (Pat) 156

Conor Medsystems Inc v Angiotech Pharmaceuticals Inc [2007] EWCA Civ 5 32, 61, 94

Conor Medsystems Inc v Angiotech Pharmaceuticals Inc [2008] UKHL 49 38, 62, 63, 152

Cooper v Baedeker (1900) 17 RPC 209 154

Couture Tech Ltd’s Application (R 1509/2008-2) [2010] ETMR 774 115, 116

Cramp & Sons Ltd v Smythson Ltd [1944] AC 329 195

Crane v Price (1842) 4 MAN & G 580 154, 156

Crossley v The Derby Gas Light Co (1834) 4 LT 25 76

Davis (J&S) Holdings v Wright Health Group [1988] RPC 403 216

Designer Guild Ltd v Russell Williams (Textiles) Ltd [2001] FSR 113 37, 43, 167, 205, 206, 207, 211

Dow Corning Corporation’s Application [1969] FSR 338 64

Dun’s Licensing/Estimating Sales Activity (T154/04) [2007] EPOR 38 132

Dyson Appliances Ltd v Hoover Ltd [2001] RPC 473 56

Dyson Appliances Ltd v Hoover Ltd (No. 2, ‘Springboard’ Relief) [2001] RPC 544 4, 77, 78

Dyson Appliances Ltd v Hoover Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1440 56, 57

eBay v MercExchange LLC 547 US 388 (2006) (US Supreme Court) 79

Elanco Products v Mandops [1979] FSR 46 85, 209, 220

Enterprise Holdings v Europcar Group UK Ltd [2014] EWHC 2498 (Ch) 101

Erven Warnink Besloten Vennootschap v Townend & Sons (Hull) Ltd [1979] AC 731 49, 50, 52

Esure Insurance v Direct Line Insurance [2008] RPC 34 101, 175

Fenty v Arcadia Group Brands Ltd [2015] EWCA Civ 3 54

Fisher v Brooker [2006] EWHC 3239 162

Fisher v Brooker [2009] UKHL 41 79

Flour Oxidising v Carr (1908) 25 RPC 428 35

Foley v Ellot [1982] RPC 433 208

Football Association Premier League v QC Leisure (C-403/08) and Murphy v Media Protection Services (C-429/08) [2012] FSR 5 166, 218

Football Dataco Ltd v Brittens Pools Ltd [2010] EWCA Civ 1380 164

Football Dataco Ltd v Yahoo! UK Ltd (C-604/10) [2013] FSR 1 164

Forensic Telecommunications Services Ltd v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire [2011] EWHC 2892 (Ch) 164

Francis Day & Hunter v Bron [1963] Ch 587 20

French v Mason [1999] FSR 597 74

Fujitsu’s Application [1996] RPC 511 129, 135, 140

Fujitsu’s Application [1997] RPC 608 129, 135, 140

Gale’s Application [1991] RPC 305 129

General Electric Company/Method for determining nuclear core loading arrangement (T914/02) [2006] EPOR 143 132

General Electric Company’s Applications [1964] RPC 413 223, 224, 226

General Tyre and Rubber Co v Firestone Tyre and Rubber Co Ltd [1972] RPC 457 159

Generics (UK) Ltd v Daiichi Pharmaceutical [2009] EWCA Civ 646 152

Generics (UK) Ltd v Lundbeck A/S [2007] RPC 32 38, 63, 152

Generics (UK) Ltd v Lundbeck A/S [2009] UKHL 12 90

Generics BV v Smith Kline & French Laboratories Ltd (C-316/95) [1997] RPC 801 75

Gerber Garment Technology Inc v Lectra Systems Ltd [1997] RPC 443 75

Gillette Safety Razor Co Ltd v Anglo-American Trading Co Ltd (1913) 30 RPC 465 157, 171, 172

Glyn v Weston Feature Films Co [1916] 1 Ch 261 111, 112

Google France and Google Inc v Louis Vuitton Malletier (C-236/08); Google France v Viaticum Luteciel (C-237/08); and Google France v CNRRH (C-238/08) [2010] ETMR 30 235, 242, 243, 245, 251

Graham v John Deere Co 383 US 1 (1966) (US Supreme Court) 269

Graver Tank & Mfg Co v Linde Air Products Co 339 US 605 (1950) (US Supreme Court) 86

Haberman v Jackel International Ltd [1999] FSR 683 226

Halliburton Energy Services Inc v Smith International (North Sea) Ltd [2005] EWHC 1623 (Pat) 70

Harries v Air King 183 F2d 158 (1950) (US Federal Circuit) 153

Harrods Ltd v Harrodian School Ltd [1996] RPC 697 49

Harvard/Onco-Mouse (T19/90) (OJ EPO, 1990, 476) 117

Harvard/Onco-Mouse (V6/92) (OJ EPO, 1992, 589) 117

Harvard/Onco-Mouse, Decision of the Opposition Division 7 November 2001 (OJ EPO, 2003, 419) 118, 122

Harwood v The Great Northern Railway Company (1865) XI House of Lords Cases (Clark’s) 654 157

Hawkes v Paramount [1934] 1 ChD 593 206

Hitachi/Auction Method (T258/03) (OJ EPO, 2004, 575) 131, 132

Hi-Tech Autoparts Ltd v Towergate Two Ltd (No. 2) [2002] FSR 270 3

Hölterhoff v Freiesleben (C-2/00) [2002] ETMR 79 240

Hotchkiss v Greenwood 52 US 248 (1850) (US Supreme Court) 156

Howard Florey Institute/Relaxin, Decision of the Opposition Division 8 December 1994 (OJ EPO, 1995, 388) 119, 120, 202

HRH Prince of Wales v Associated Newspapers Ltd [2006] EWCA 1776 230, 231

Hubbard v Vosper [1972] QB 84 45, 230

Human Genome Sciences Inc v Eli Lilly & Co [2010] EWCA Civ 33 129

Human Genome Sciences Inc v Eli Lilly & Co [2011] UKSC 51 28, 107, 130, 151, 265, 276

Hyde Park Residence Ltd v Yelland [1999] RPC 655 113

Hyde Park Residence Ltd v Yelland [2000] RPC 604 113, 230

Hymac Ltd v Priestman Brothers Ltd [1978] RPC 495 85

Hyperion Records Ltd v Sawkins [2005] EWCA Civ 565 162, 193, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204

Ibcos Computers Ltd v Barclays Mercantile Highland Finance Ltd [1994] FSR 275 195, 212, 213

IBM/Document abstracting and retrieving (T22/85) (OJ EPO, 1990, 12) 68, 139

Improver v Remmington [1990] FSR 181 15

Infopaq International v Danske Dagblades Forening (C-5/08) [2010] FSR 495 165, 217, 218

Interflora Inc, Interflora British Unit v Marks & Spencer plc, Flowers Direct Online Ltd (C-323/09) [2012] ETMR 1 243, 245, 246, 247, 251

Interflora Inc v Marks & Spencer plc [2014] EWCA Civ 1403 241, 244, 264

Interlego v Tyco Industries [1988] RPC 343 163, 198, 199

IPC Media v Highbury Leisure [2004] EWHC 2985 211, 212

Irvine v Talksport [2002] EWHC 367 52

Jian Tools for Sales Inc v Roderick Manhattan Group [1995] FSR 924 85, 86

Johns-Manville Corp's Patent [1967] FSR 327 59, 94

Johnstone Safety Ltd v Peter Cook (Int) plc [1990] FSR 161 210

Jones (by Caldwell) v First Tier Tribunal, Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority [2013] UKSC 19 42

Jones v London Borough of Tower Hamlets [2001] RPC 407 213

Kastner v Rizla [1995] RPC 585 15

Killen v MacMillan (1932) 49 RPC 258 170

Kirin-Amgen Inc v Hoechst Marion Roussel Ltd [2004] UKHL 46 15

Kirin-Amgen Inc v Transkaryotic Therapies Inc (No. 3) [2005] FSR 875 78, 79, 80

Klinger v Conan Doyle Est Ltd No. 14-1128 (7th Cir 2014) (US Federal Circuit) 169

Koninklijke KPN Nederland NV v Benelux-Merkenbureau (C-363/99) [2004] ETMR 771 250

Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV v Nintendo of Europe GmbH [2014] EWHC 1959 (Pat) 172

Krisarts SA v Briarfine Ltd [1977] FSR 557 205

Ladbroke (Football) Ltd v William Hill (Football) Ltd [1964] 1 WLR 273 93, 162, 168, 195

Lawrence v Smith 7 ER 928 112

Lawson v Serco [2006] ICR 250 42

LB (Plastics) Ltd v Swish Products Ltd [1977] FSR 87 194, 195

Leslie v Young & Sons [1894] AC 335 196, 198

Liardet v Johnson, Morning Post 23 February 1778 (No. 1667, p. 2, col.4) 228, 229

Libertel Groep BV v Benelux-Merkenbureau (C-104/01) [2003] ETMR 63 27, 28

Linde AG (C-53/01); Winward Industries Inc (C-54/01); and Rado Uhren AG Applications (C-55/01) [2003] ETMR 963 250

Lloyd Schuhfabrik Meyer & Co. GmbH v Klijsen Handel BV (C-342/97) [2000] FSR 77 101, 175

Loendersloot v George Ballantine (C-349/95) [1998] ETMR 10 264

The London Taxi Corporation Ltd v Frazer-Nash Research Ltd [2016] EWHC 52 (Ch) 250

Longbottom v Shaw (1891) 8 RPC 333 154

L’Oréal SA v Bellure NV [2007] EWCA Civ 968 110, 223

L’Oréal SA v Bellure NV (C-487/07) [2010] RPC 1 244

L’Oréal SA v Bellure NV [2010] EWCA Civ 535 246

L’Oréal SA v eBay International AG (C-324/09) [2011] ETMR 52 234, 243

Lucas v Gaedor [1978] RPC 297 225

Lux Traffic Controls Ltd v Pike Signals Ltd [1993] RPC 107 151

Lloyd Schuhfabrik Meyer & Co GmbH v Klijsen Handel BV (C-342/97) [2000] FSR 77 101, 175

MacMillan Publishers v Reed [1993] FSR 455 162

MacMillan v Cooper (1924) 40 TLR 186 162, 193, 195, 200, 216

MacMillan v Suresh Chunder Deb ILR 17 C 951 (Calcutta High Court) 193

Macrossan’s Application [2006] EWHC 705 134

Marks & Spencer plc v Interflora Inc [2012] EWCA Civ 1501 101

Mentor v Hollister [1993] RPC 7 228

Merck & Co Inc v Generics (UK) Ltd [2003] EWHC 2842 (Pat) 187

Merck Canada Inc, Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd v Sigma Pharmaceuticals plc [2012] EWPCC 21 78

Merck Canada Inc, Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd v Sigma Pharmaceuticals plc [2013] EWCA Civ 326 78

Merck’s Patents [2003] EWCA Civ 1545 42

Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc v Norton [1996] RPC 76 128, 172, 227

Microsoft/Data transfer with expanded clipboard formats (T424/03) [2006] EPOR 414 131, 134

Milliken Denmark v Walk Off Mat [1996] FSR 292 151

Miss World Ltd v Channel Four Television Corp [2007] EWHC 982 (Pat) 175, 240

Mobil/Friction reducing additive (G02/88) [1990] EPOR 73 173

Mölnlycke AB v Procter & Gamble [1994] RPC 49 152, 153, 156

Navitaire Inc v Easy Jet Airline [2005] EWHC 0282 (Ch) 79, 211

Nestec SA v Dualit Ltd [2013] EWHC 923 (Pat) 96

News Group v Rocket [1981] FSR 89 85

Newspaper Licensing Agency v Marks & Spencer [2001] UKHL 38 168, 205, 213

Newspaper Licensing Agency v Meltwater Holding BV [2010] EWHC 3099 (Ch) 220

Newspaper Licensing Agency v Meltwater Holding BV [2011] EWCA Civ 890 220

Nokia Oyj (Nokia Corp) v IPCom GmbH & Co KG [2012] EWCA Civ 567 225

Norowzian v Arks Ltd (No. 2) [2000] FSR 363 42

North-Eastern Marine Engineering Co v Leeds Forge Co (1906) 23 RPC 529 170

Nova Productions Ltd v Mazooma Games Ltd [2006] EWHC 24 (Ch) 211

Nova Productions Ltd v Mazooma Games Ltd [2007] EWCA Civ 219 161, 211, 219

Novartis v Johnson & Johnson [2010] EWCA Civ 1039 228

O2 Holdings Ltd v Hutchison 3G Ltd [2006] EWHC 534 (Ch) 102

O2 Holdings Ltd v Hutchison 3G Ltd [2006] EWCA Civ 1656 102, 103

O2 Holdings Ltd v Hutchison 3G Ltd (C-533/06) [2008] RPC 33 102, 103

OCH-ZIFF Management Europe Ltd v OCH Capital LLP [2010] EWHC 2599 (Ch) 176, 235

OHIM v Wrigley [2004] ETMR 121 249

Okotoks Ltd (Formerly Spicerhaart Ltd) v Fine & Country Ltd [2013] EWCA Civ 672 42, 43

Omnipharm v Merial [2011] EWHC 3393 (Pat) 38

Oystertec’s Patent [2003] RPC 29 170

Painer v Standard Verlags GmbH (C-145/10) [2012] ECDR 6 165, 201

Paragon Finance plc v Thakerar & Co [1999] 1 All ER 400 72

Parfums Christian Dior SA v Evora BV (C-337/95) [1997] ECR I-6013 244

PBS Partnership/Controlling Pension Benefits System (T931/95) (OJ EPO, 2001, 441) 131, 133, 135

Petra Fisher’s Application [1997] RPC 899 223

Philips v Remington (C-299/99) [2001] ETMR 509 115

Place v Blackburn (1912) 29 RPC 656 154

Plant Genetic Systems/Plant cells resistant to glutamine synthetase inhibitors (T356/93) (OJ EPO, 1995, 545) 117, 120

PLG Research Ltd v Ardon International Ltd [1993] FSR 197 173

Point Solutions Ltd v Focus Business Solutions Ltd [2005] EWHC 3096 169

Pope Appliance Corporation v Spanish River Pulp and Paper Mills [1929] AC 269 228

Portakabin Ltd v Primakabin BV (C-558/08) [2010] ETMR 52 243, 245

Pozzoli SpA v BDMO SA [2007] EWCA Civ 588 55

President’s Reference/Computer program exclusion (G3/08) [2009] EPOR 9 141, 142, 144

Purefoy Engineering v Sykes Boxall (1955) 72 RPC 89 216

Qualcast (Wolverhampton) v Haynes [1959] AC 743 63

R. v X/Same Invention [2002] EPOR 167 96

Raleigh International TM [2001] RPC 11 100

Ravenscroft v Herbert [1980] RPC 193 209

Reckitt & Colman Products Ltd v Borden Inc [1990] RPC 341 49, 65, 280

Reed Executive Plc v Reed Business Information Ltd [2004] EWCA Civ 159 176

Regan v Paul Properties Ltd [2006] EWCA Civ 1391 79

Research in Motion UK Ltd v Inpro Licensing SARL [2006] EWHC 70 68, 130

Resolution Chemicals Ltd v Lundbeck A/S [2013] EWCA Civ 1515 109

Rose Plastics GmbH v William Beckett & Co (Plastics) Ltd [1989] FSR 113 210

Roussel-Uclaf v Searle & Co Ltd [1977] FSR 125 80

Rovi Solutions Corp v Virgin Media Ltd [2015] EWCA Civ 781 225

Russian Commercial and Industrial Bank v British Bank of Foreign Trade Ltd [1921] 2 AC 438 169

SA Société LTJ Diffusion v SA Sadas (C-291/00) [2003] ETMR 83 100, 175, 176, 240

Saint-Gobain PAM SA v Fusion Provida Ltd [2005] EWCA Civ 177 60

Sandman v Panasonic [1998] FSR 651 209, 212

SAS Institute Inc v World Programming Ltd [2010] EWHC 1829 (Ch) 218

SAS Institute Inc v World Programming Ltd [2013] EWCA civ 1482 14, 93, 218, 220, 222

Schlumberger Holdings Ltd v Electromagnetic Geoservices AS [2010] EWCA Civ 819 57, 225, 226

SEB SA v De’Longhi SpA [2003] EWCA Civ 952 42

Sheldon v Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Corp 81 F2d 49 (2d Cir. 1936) (US Federal Circuit) 202

Shopalotto.COM Ltd’s Application [2005] EWHC 2416 (Pat) 68, 70, 130

Smith & Nephew plc v Convatec Technologies [2013] EWHC 3955 (Pat) 4, 76, 78

SmithKline Beecham v Apotex [2003] EWCA Civ 137 84, 86

Société des Produits Nestlé SA v Cadbury UK Ltd (C-215/14) [2015] ETMR 50 250

Société des Produits Nestlé SA v Cadbury UK Ltd [2016] EWHC 50 (Ch) 250

Société Technique de Pulverisation Step v Emson Europe Ltd [1993] RPC 513 156, 172

Southey v Sherwood 35 ER 1006 112

Southwark LBC v Williams [1971] Ch 734 179

Spalding Brothers v Gamage Ltd [1914-15] All ER Rep 147 50

Specsavers International Healthcare Ltd v Asda Stores Ltd (No. 2) [2012] EWCA Civ 24 87, 104

Specsavers International Healthcare Ltd v Asda Stores Ltd (C-252/12) [2013] ETMR 46 104

Starbucks (HK) Ltd v British Sky Broadcasting Group plc [2015] UKSC 31 64, 65, 67

Stockdale v Onwhyn 108 ER 65 112

Supreme Petfoods Ltd v Henry Bell & Co (Grantham) Ltd [2015] EWHC 256 (Ch) 241

Swift & Co's Application [1962] RPC 37 223

Synthon BV v Smithkline Beecham plc [2005] UKHL 59 159

Technograph Printed Circuits Ltd v Mills & Rockley (Electronics) Ltd [1972] RPC 346 55, 225

Thomson v American Braided Wire (1889) 6 RPC 518 154

TNS Group Holdings Ltd v Nielsen Media Research Inc [2009] FSR 23 170

Traction Corp v Bennett (1908) 25 RPC 819 170

Twentieth Century Fox Film Corp v Harris [2013] EWHC 159 (Ch) 74

Unilever plc v Griffin [2010] EWHC 899 (Ch) 234

Union Carbide Corporation v BP Chemicals Limited [1998] FSR 1 77

United Biscuits Ltd v Asda Stores Ltd [1997] RPC 513 51, 52

University of London Press Ltd v University Tutorial Press Ltd [1916] 2 Ch 601 162, 212

Valensi v British Radio Corporation [1973] RPC 337 228

Vestergaard Frandsen A/S v Bestnet Europe Ltd [2009] EWHC 1456 (Ch) 4, 76, 77

Vicom Systems Inc/Computer-related invention (T208/84) (OJ EPO, 1987, 14) 68, 130, 131

Viking Gas A/S v Kosan Gas A/S (C-46/10) [2011] ETMR 58 243, 245

Virgin Atlantic v Premium Aircraft [2009] EWCA Civ 1513 78, 79

Walcot v Walker (1802) 32 ER 1 112

Walter v Lane [1900] AC 539 163, 200

Warner-Lambert Company LLC v Sandoz GMBH [2015] EWHC 3153 (Pat) 85

Warwick Film v Eisenger [1969] 1 Ch 508 168

Watson v Croft Promo-Sport Ltd [2009] EWCA Civ 15 79

Western Front v Vestron [1987] FSR 66 74

Wilson v Wilson Bros (1911) 28 RPC 733 154

Windsurfing Chiemsee Produktions- und Vertriebs GmbH v Boots- und Segelzubehör Walter Huber and Franz Attenberge (C-109/97) [1999] ETMR 585 249, 250

Windsurfing International Inc v Tabur Marine (Great Britain) Ltd [1985] RPC 59 36, 55, 157, 159

Wyko Group Plc v Cooper Roller Bearings Co Ltd [1996] FSR 126 169

Young v Bristol Aeroplane Company [1944] KB 718 128