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Form in Intellectual Property Law

David Booton

This book sets out to expose, analyse and evaluate the conflicting conceptions of legal judgment that operate in intellectual property law. Its central theme is the opposition between law-making by way of the creation of generally applicable rules and law-making done at the point of application through case-by- case decisions tailored to the particulars of individual circumstances. Through an exploration of form, the analysis sets out to provide insights into how intellectual property law achieves a balance between various competing interests.
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Index

David Booton

adjudication, legal

see also decision making, judicial; discretion, judicial

binding precedents see binding precedents

coexistence of rule-like and standard-based solutions 26

context 28–9

creation of law by courts 30

deductive reasoning by courts 31

earlier binding precedents 25–6

equity, role of 26, 72

establishment of facts 31

and form 25–88

inductive reasoning of courts 26, 64–5, 67, 107

injunctive relief see injunctions

judicial discretion 25, 35

legal directions, wording of 32, 40

obviousness test, inventions 25, 34

passing off, tort of 25

prior art 34, 35, 37, 55, 56, 60

rules see rule-bound decisions

standards see standard-bound decisions

statutory provisions, effects 31–2

Aldous, Sir William 56, 57, 79, 80, 81, 113, 114, 129, 135, 140, 173, 225

altruism

commitment to 181

and individualism 16–17, 180, 182, 185, 189–92, 203, 204, 213, 217, 232, 249, 252–4, 256

standard-bound decisions 13, 203

America Invents Act (AIA) 91

pre-AIA US priority system 98, 99

anachronism 47, 48, 51, 291

appellate courts

copying of work, in copyright law 42–3

law-making an acknowledged role of 107

lower court’s decision based on error of principle 42, 43

Apple Computer 236–7

appropriation theory 284

arbitrary decisions 109, 111, 118

architecture 213

Arrow, K 258

Atkinson, John (Baron) 194–5

Ayres, I 260, 273–5

balance of convenience test 84, 85

balance of probabilities test 2, 31

Barron, Anne 285

Bently, L 100, 118, 120, 149, 160, 161–2, 178, 213

bias, decision making 6–7

see also prejudices

arbitrary decisions 109, 111, 118

avoiding perceptions of 91, 105–24

coherence requirement 114–15

hypothetical and extreme examples 115–16

instances of 109

morality issues 111–24

‘ordre public’, contrary to 117, 119, 120, 121

risk 6, 91–2, 111

binding precedents

see also adjudication, legal; decision making, judicial; discretion, judicial

classical trinity (principles of law binding present and future courts) 49, 53

classification decisions 64

decision making, judicial 59

earlier 25–6

ex ante versus ex post decision making 93

flexibility of standards 47

guidance of future decisions 48

BioIndustry Association, case law 108, 265, 266

Bochnovic, John 152–6, 158, 159

‘bright line’ test 3, 4, 151, 221

Brimelow, Alison (EPO President) 144

Burrell, R 28

Castells, Manuel 253

cDNA fragments, case law 119

celebrity endorsement 52, 53

celebrity merchandising 53

Christie, Andrew 33

classical trinity (principles of law binding present and future courts) 49, 53

coherence requirement, judicial decision making 44, 45

morality issues, and bias 114–15

Colomer, Ruiz-Jarabo 115

colour, registration as a trade mark 27–8

compensation, entitlement of employee inventors to 38–9, 41

compilations 10, 162–4, 193, 195, 196, 198

computer programs 7, 164, 165

confidentiality, breach of 76

confusion, likelihood of in trade mark cases 6, 101, 102, 103

consequential reasoning 106

constructive trusts 74

context, importance in legal adjudication 28–9

Convention on the Grant of European Patents see European Patent Convention (EPC)

copying of work 10, 18, 42–3, 167, 195

see also copyright; skill, labour and judgement

electronic 180, 183

and infringement 148, 212, 219

music 193, 194, 200, 204

negligence 43

and originality 163, 198, 199–200

paintings 201, 202–3

part of a work 148, 167, 218

photographs 201–2

proof of 213

protection against 216

significant characteristics 236

skill, labour and judgement 193, 194, 198, 201

subconscious 20

unaltered 211

wholesale 216

work which is itself copied 10, 148

copyright 9–10, 12–13, 14, 19–21, 192–223

artistic work 201, 202–3, 210

classification of works, proposal for abolition 33

compilations 10, 162–4, 193, 195, 196, 198

copying of work see copying of work

denial of 195–6

established characters 44–5

‘Europeanization’ of UK copyright law 217

examination 271–2

ideas versus expression 190, 208, 212–14

Information Society Directive 165, 168, 191, 205, 217, 220, 221, 222

infringement claims 41, 54, 148, 167, 193, 204–17, 219

and internet 182–3

literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works: originality requirement 160

morality issues, and bias 111–13

originality condition see originality condition, copyright

partial taking 10, 14, 37, 59, 72, 93, 165, 167, 168, 217, 219

piracy 183

protectable subject matter, defining boundaries of 27, 147–8, 160–70, 176

reproduction right 217

risk 215, 216, 221

rule-bound decisions 148, 219, 222–3, 248

skill, labour and judgement, originality 161–3, 166, 193, 194, 196–9

statutory defences based on ‘fair dealing’ 39

subsistence and infringement 27, 169, 269

substantial taking 13, 72, 169, 190, 206, 211, 213, 221

traditional UK law 160

UK approach to categorization 167

Cornish, W 74, 82, 84, 153, 155, 161, 223, 230, 266, 271

Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) 14, 33, 93, 175, 217, 263–4

European integration, harmonization and form 143, 144

ex ante versus ex post decision making 100, 101, 103

trade marks 235, 240, 241, 244, 248

courts

creation of law by 30, 107

disagreements between EPC and UK courts 130

inductive reasoning of 26, 64–5, 67, 107

whether EPO decisions binding on UK courts 130

Creative Commons organization 184

critical legal studies movement 40–41

damages, entitlement of owners to claim 75, 83

decision making, judicial

see also adjudication, legal; bias, decision making; discretion, judicial; rule-bound decisions; standard-bound decisions

arbitrary decisions 109, 111, 118

assessment and weighing of relevant factors 37, 39

attempts by EPO to disguise 137

binding precedents 59

containing rulings in points of law versus propositions of good sense 63

deductive reasoning by courts 31

distribution pattern 29

ex ante versus ex post92–105, 224

facts see facts, judicial decision-making

faith in decision making of experts 118

flexibility in 27, 32

founding of decision on an error of principle 42, 43

guidance of future decisions 48

inductive reasoning by courts 26, 64–5, 67, 107

prejudices, perceptions of 91

principled decisions 55, 59

rules or standards 26–7

deductive reasoning by courts 31

Demsetz, Harold 261–2

digitization 7, 183

Dinwoodie, Graeme 251

Diplock, William John Kenneth (Baron) 15, 48, 49, 50, 59–61, 84, 92, 223, 225, 226

discoveries, exclusion from patentable subject matter 70

discretion, judicial 25

concepts/definitions 41–2

explanative 48

findings of primary fact 42

of future decision makers 48

infringement of copyright 54

purpose of legal provision, clarity of 36

rules versus standards debate 36, 37

strong versus weak sense 35

Diver, Colin 31

Drahos, Peter 54, 149, 177, 178, 206, 215, 229, 283, 285, 288

Drassinower, Abraham 290

duties, creation of scheme 29

Dworkin, Ronald 30–31, 35, 38, 40, 41, 267

electronic communications 182

employee inventors, entitlement to compensation 38–9, 41

Endicott, T 46, 54

EPC see European Patent Convention (EPC)

EPO Boards 124, 127

see also European Patent Office (EPO)

Boards of Appeal 8, 128, 129, 138, 145

Enlarged Board of Appeal 96, 139, 144, 145

Technical Board of Appeal (TBA) 68–9, 120, 140

equity

duality between law, and 74, 86

as instrument of justice 84

recourse to 5

role in legal adjudication 26, 72

European Commission, Green Paper (1997) 142

European Court of Justice see Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)

European Patent Convention (EPC) 7, 8

core purpose 127, 138

disagreements with UK courts 130

and European Union 127

harmonization attempts 135

invention to have been made available to the public 173

inventions and moral issues 117

member states 125, 130

patentable subject matter under 29, 67–8

European Patent Office (EPO) 7, 29, 272, 273

see also inventions; patents

Administrative Council 141

‘any hardware approach’ 132, 133–4

attempts to disguise decision making 137

Boards see EPO Boards

decisions of, whether binding at national level 130

Examining Division 68

law-making power 67

morality issues, and bias 117

Opposition Division 119–20, 122–3

primary responsibility 140

problem and solution approach 152

Technical Board of Appeal (TBA) 131, 132

European Union (EU) 14

first-to-file approach 91, 98

harmonization mechanisms 127

impact of UK’s probable exit from 29, 221

institutions 142

integration and harmonization 91, 125–46

member states 160

originality condition, copyright 220, 221

patent system 29, 137–8

ex ante versus ex post decision making 91, 92–105, 224

trade marks 99–105

experimentation, inventions 59, 60, 62

facts, judicial decision making

assessment of 35–6

discovery of 36

establishment of 31

finding of specific fact versus inference from facts specifically found 36

findings of primary fact 42

hearing of appeals, errors of principle 42, 43

inventions 34

person skilled in the relevant art 56

fairness

adoption of relevant factors 41

application by judges 6, 71

copyright statutory defences based on ‘fair dealing’ 39

employee inventors’ entitlement to compensation 38–9, 41

fair dealing, publication of private memoranda 45

and obviousness 44

principles laying beyond legal provision 43–4

trade marks 247–8

ubiquity of term, in English law 44

filtration processes, case law 60

final injunctions 78–9, 80, 81–2

flexibility

injunctions 4–5

judicial discretion and legal standards 27, 32, 45, 47

passing off, tort of 48–9

value in 3

flocculating agents, case law 60, 61

Fox, H 154–5

Fry Committee 271

Gangjee, Dev 251

Gerhardt, Deborah 256

glutamine synthetase inhibitors, plant cells resistant to 123

goodwill 50, 53, 65, 66

Gratwick, S 153, 154

Griffiths, Andrew 158, 263, 264

Griffiths, Jonathan 206–7

H2-preprorelaxin, case law 119

Handler, M 28

Hargreaves Review (2011) 182, 214

harmonization and integration, European 125–46

adoption of rules and standards at supra-national level 7, 125–6

Biotechnology Directive example 127

codification 125–6

harmonization goal as overriding objective 138

originality test 165

and UK Court of Appeal 128

Hepatitis C virus (HCV), case law 80

Heydon, J D 44

Hoffmann, Leonard Hubert (Baron) 15, 34, 37, 38, 42, 43, 54–5, 63, 128, 130, 150, 152, 156, 159, 168, 172, 173, 205–7, 211, 216, 217, 220, 248

Hohfeld, Wesley 29–30, 105, 215

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 203

Hughes, Justin 197, 207, 231, 283, 284

ideas versus expression 190, 208, 212–14

identity 11, 17, 192, 206, 253

defined 253

double 239, 241, 246

individual 123, 253

trade marks 10, 149, 175, 191, 239, 240, 241, 244, 248, 251, 254, 256, 282

individualism 12, 181

and altruism 16–17, 180, 182, 185, 189–92, 203, 204, 213, 217, 232, 249, 252–4, 256

economic 186, 187

Kantian 287–9

liberal 23, 283, 286, 288

and patents 191

political 188

and rules 188, 189, 203

and trade marks 191

inductive reasoning of courts 26, 64–5, 67, 107

inflexibility

see also flexibility

non-express trusts 72

and requirement regarding harm 72

of rules 46–7, 71

infringement claims 27

copyright 41, 54, 148, 167, 193, 204–17, 219

counter-claims 170

declarations of non-infringement of copyright 169

national courts, decisions of 29

partial taking 167

relative infrequency of actions 268

termination of infringement 84

tests determining 28

trade marks 101–3, 238–9

injunctions 4–5, 26

final 78–9, 80, 81–2

interim 5, 84, 85–6, 87

post-expiry 77, 82

reasonableness 77

springboard 75–8

transaction costs 83

UK compared to US 80–81

intellectual property (IP) law

see also copyright; inventions; patents; trade marks

creation of scheme of duties as opposed to rights 29

damages, entitlement of owners to claim 75, 83

description of colour by reference to (trade marks) 27–8

economic justifications underpinning 46

enforcement 74–5

intangible abstract objects of IPRs 54

no rivalry in the consumption of intellectual goods 179

public power of intellectual property 11

rights and remedies of owners 74

rules, infrequently encountered 19

shareability of information 180

terminology 27

Intellectual Property Office, UK, Trade Marks Manual 115

interim injunctions 5, 84, 85–6, 87

internet 182–3

interpersonal/social dimension 178–256

and rivalry 179

inventions

see also patents; priority dates, patents/inventions

compensation, entitlement of employee to 38–9, 41

concept of invention 135, 151

degree of novelty or difference from the prior art 159

exclusions 135

experimentation, product of 59, 60, 62

fair share of benefit, employee inventions 38–9

industrially applicable condition 151

inventive step requirement 34, 59–60, 97, 151, 153, 159, 160, 166

morality issues, and bias 117

novelty requirement 34, 35

obviousness test see obviousness test, inventions

prior art see prior art

requirement of inventiveness 153

simple facts 34

software-implemented, patentability 130, 132

and state of the art 33

technical character 131, 135, 136–7, 139

tests 153

whether patentable under the terms of the EPC 29

Jacob, Sir Robert Raphael Hayim ‘Robin’ 32, 56, 61–3, 70, 103, 128, 129, 133, 138, 139, 145, 161, 195, 199, 212, 219, 223, 245

judicial activism, limits 187–8

judicial discretion see discretion, judicial

justifications underpinning intellectual property law 257–92

economic 18, 46

research and development (R&D), investment in 21, 258–61

theories 267

trade marks 262–3

Kamien, M 258

Kant, Immanuel 23, 190, 284–9

individualism 287–9

Kelman, Mark 188–9

Kennedy, Duncan 12, 35–6, 40, 180–82, 185–9, 253, 286–8

Kitchen, Sir David James 264

Klemperer, P 260, 273–5

Knight, Frank 259

Kozinski, Alex 233–4

Laddie, Sir Hugh Ian Lang 53, 62

laissez-faire theory 186

Lalande, Michel-Richard de 162, 193, 194, 199

Landes, W 82, 201, 206–7, 211, 229, 230, 257, 261–5, 271

legal directions

content and scope 47

extraction for an earlier decision 47

morality conditions 111

personal convictions, figuring in decision making process 91

standards, framed as 93

wording of 32, 40

legislation

bias, avoiding perceptions of in decision making 91, 105–24

creation of law by courts 30, 107

defined 32

European integration and harmonization 91, 125–46

ex ante versus ex post decision making 91, 92–105

legislative power and harmonization 89–146

limits on law-making powers 89

past decisions, unavailability of 107–8

patent law 58–9

Lemley, Mark 269, 272, 273, 274, 275

Lewison, Kim Martin Jordan 102–3

licences, compulsory 80–81

likelihood of confusion, trade marks 6, 101, 102, 103

literary works, originality 193, 200, 207

Llewellyn, Karl 125–6

Locke, John 283, 284

luxury goods 254–5

MacCormick, Neil 31, 32, 48, 63–4

Machlup, Fritz 291

MacMillan, Hugh (Baron) 196

Mansfield, E 258

Mansfield, William Murray (eighteenth-century judge) 228

Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) 184

Merges, Robert 262, 272, 283, 284–9

Justifying Intellectual Property23

misrepresentation 49–51

see also passing off, tort of

deceptive 51, 52

material 50

reappraisal of notion 52

reliance upon 50

monopoly-profit-incentive thesis 267, 281

morality issues, and bias 111–24

copyright 111–13

impartiality of judge 114

patents 117–18

surveys and opinion polls 121–2

trade marks 114–15

Munich Diplomatic Conference (2000) 69, 137, 141, 143

music, copying of 193, 194, 200, 204

Neuberger, David Edmond (Baron) 28, 65, 67, 78–80, 90, 108, 125, 129–30

novelty requirement, inventions 34, 35

protectable subject matter, defining boundaries of 151, 159

tests 151

obiter dicta47

obviousness test, inventions 25, 34, 42, 63, 223, 224, 227

see also inventions

ex ante versus ex post decision making 94

and fairness 44

harmonization and integration, European 140

‘obvious to try’ test 60, 61, 62, 64

protectable subject matter, defining boundaries of 152–3, 154–5

requirement of non-obviousness 157

Office for Harmonisation in the Internal Market (OHIM) 279

Boards of Appeal 116, 117

Guidelines 115

Oliver, Peter Raymond (Baron) 36, 49, 50, 53, 65, 157, 159, 163, 198–201

open access movement 183

opinion polls 121–2

‘ordre public’, patents contrary to 117, 119, 120, 121

originality condition, copyright 148, 160–68, 190, 192, 270

see also copyright

computer programs 164, 165

and copying 163, 198, 199–200

creativity 195

databases 165

dispensing with 168

European law 220, 221

Information Society Directive 165

literary works 193, 200, 207

meaning 205

photographs 164, 165

‘rule-like’ nature 169

skill, labour and judgement 161–3, 166, 193, 194, 196–9, 201

UK test 165

Palmer, Tom 291

Parker, Hubert Lister (Baron) 35, 50

partial taking, copyright 10, 14, 37, 59, 72, 93, 165, 167, 168, 217, 219

passing off, tort of 25

see also misrepresentation

Australian law 66

celebrity endorsement 52, 53

classical trinity 49, 53

common law nature 48–9

goodwill 50, 53

‘Jif Lemon’ case 49, 53

misrepresentation 49–51

name choices and packaging, similarities in 51

own-brand products 51, 52

proof of relevant commercial activity 66

public perception 51

trade mark registration system 100

Patent Office see European Patent Office (EPO)

patents 14–16, 223–32

see also European Patent Convention (EPC); European Patent Office (EPO); inventions; novelty requirement, inventions; prior art; priority dates, patents/inventions

competitiveness of particular firm 58

concept of patentability 117

established characters 44–5

European system 29, 137–8

examination of applications in the UK 153

exclusion of discoveries from patentable subject matter 70

first-to-file approach 91, 98

goal of stimulating innovative activity 57

grant of letters patent 155

impact of UK's probable exit from the EU 29

and individualism 191

insular nature of law 118

in terrorem effect of bad patents 274

interpretation problems versus classification 64

inventive concept 55

legislation 58–9

morality issues, and bias 117–18

‘obvious to try’ test 60, 61, 62, 64

‘ordre public’, contrary to 117, 119, 120, 121

person skilled in the relevant art 55, 56, 57, 59

post-grant matters, unitary patents 29

prejudices 56, 57

priority in patent claims 91

protectable subject matter, defining boundaries of 27, 147, 150–60, 170–74, 176

as registered rights 150–51

royalty payments 275

rule-based nature of substantive examination, in Europe 136–7

rule-bound decisions 136, 270

software-implemented inventions, patentability 130

statutory provisions 55

substantive examination, European 136, 137

unitary 29

US system 80–81, 269

validity 174

Patents Convention see European Patent Convention (EPC)

Penner, James 231

Philips, Jeremy 264

pipe corrosion, case law 60–61

piracy 183

plant biotechnology, case law 122, 124

policies

justification of judicial decisions 45

principles compared 40

weight dimension 40–41

Posner, R 82, 201, 206–7, 211, 229, 230, 257, 261–5, 271

post-expiry injunctions 77, 82

Pound, Roscoe 46

precedent doctrine see binding precedents

prejudices

see also bias, decision making

absence of rules 91

patent law 56, 57

Prescott, Peter (QC) 68, 69, 133, 134, 136

principles

errors of principle, judicial decision-making 42, 43

justification of judicial decisions 45

policies compared 40

principled decisions 55

weight dimension 40–41

prior art 20–22, 126, 132, 153, 158, 170–72, 271–3, 277, 278

see also inventions; novelty requirement; patents

devices 152

documents 60

ex ante versus ex post decision making 97

legal adjudication 34, 35, 37, 55, 56, 60

and novelty 151, 159

priority dates, patents/inventions 36, 56, 157, 173, 174, 273

see also inventions; patents

date of filing of application 95

default position 95

earlier relevant applications 95, 96

establishing priority 97

ex ante versus ex post decision making 94, 95, 97

interpersonal/social dimension 224–6, 229

and Paris Convention 96

‘poisonous priority’ 96

rule-based determination 97, 268

and TRIPS Agreement 96

in United States 98

progressive model of property rights 261–2

promotional goodwill 53

protectable subject matter, defining boundaries of 147–77

copyright 27, 147–8, 160–70, 176

formal examinations 150

obscurity 136

patents 27, 147, 150–60, 170–74, 176

registration systems 150

tangible property 149

trade marks 27, 148–9, 174–6

public interest test, compulsory licences 80–81

Pumfrey, Nicholas Richard 68, 70, 130, 156, 209, 212, 213

reasonableness, injunctive relief 77

research and development (R&D) 21, 258–61

uncertainty 258, 259

Rich, Giles 276, 277, 278

rights

allocation at work 72–3

creation of scheme of duties as opposed to 29

ownership, law relating to 72–3

tests determining claims to 28

risk 18, 21, 22, 28, 59, 62, 67, 106, 121, 143, 145–6, 232

bias 6, 91–2, 111

copyright law 215, 216, 221

deliberate taking of 85–6

justifications underpinning intellectual property law 260, 271, 273, 275–7, 280, 284

risk adverse individuals 58, 149, 272

versus uncertainty 259

rule-bound decisions 25

see also adjudication, legal; legislation; standard-bound decisions

absolute precision in drafting, impossibility of 33

adoption of general rules at supra-national level 7, 125–6

and arbitrary decisions 109

bias, avoiding perceptions of 106–7

choice between rules and no rules 89, 91

clarity and predictability characteristics 26–7, 36, 45, 136

and codification 125–6

coexistence of rules with standards 26

comparison of rules with principles and policies 40

comparison of rules with standards 2, 26–7, 35–6, 37, 45, 92

concepts 30–31

copyright 148, 219, 222–3, 248

deliberate taking of risk 85–6

ex ante versus ex post decision making 94

formulation of the rule as a rule 32

ideal rules 30, 90, 136

impossibility of perfect rules 90

individualism 188, 189, 203

inflexibility of 46–7, 71

infrequent occurrence of rules in intellectual property law 19

interim injunctions 84, 85–6, 87

inventions 151

legislative provisions formulated as rules 32–3

limits on law-making powers 89

originality condition, copyright 148

over- or under-inclusiveness as to purpose 46

patents 136, 270

prejudice, in absence of rules 91

priority dates 96, 97, 268

recognition of rule as binding by courts 32

rules versus standards debate 1, 26, 30–31, 35–6, 46, 91, 185

source of binding rules 32

trade marks 248

undesirable outcomes 47

Schlag, Pierre 26

Schwartz, N 258

Senftleben, M 241

Shapiro, C 272

Sherman, B 100, 118, 120, 149, 160, 161–2, 178, 213

similarity test

copyright 167

trade marks 6, 11, 101–3, 175, 176, 244

skill, labour and judgement 161–3, 166, 196–9

copying of work 193, 194, 198, 201

copyright infringement 206–7

Social Darwinism 187

social psychology studies 182

software-implemented inventions, patentability 130, 132

Spence, M 46, 54

Spencer, Herbert 276

springboard injunctions 75–8

standard-bound decisions

see also adjudication, legal; bias, decision making; rules

administration costs, increasing 46

adoption of standard at supra-national level 7, 125

altruism 13, 203

assessment of confusion, in trade mark cases 101

assessment of facts 35–6

and codification 125

coexistence of standards with rules 26

coherence requirement 44, 45

comparison of standards with factors 38

comparison of standards with rules 2, 27, 35–6, 37, 45, 92

discretion, exercise of 36

economic efficiency 93

efficiency considerations 46

errors of principle, appealing of decisions 42, 43

ex ante versus ex post decision making 93, 94

flexibility and dynamism requirements 27, 45, 47

and foresight 5–6

foresight requirement 105

interim injunctions 84, 85–6, 87

legal directions framed as 93

limits on law-making powers 89

negligence 42

principles 40

priority in patent claims 91

reference by appellate courts to standards 42

rules versus standards debate 1, 26, 30–31, 35–6, 46, 84, 91, 185

uncertainty up to point when decision made 150

standards of conduct 72

state of the art, inventions 33, 34

statutory provisions

effect on legal adjudication 31–2

imprecise language 32–3

substantial taking, copyright 13, 72, 169, 190, 206, 211, 213, 221

Sunstein, Cass 1, 30, 32, 33, 35, 37–41, 46, 47, 71, 86, 89, 92, 106, 125, 182

Supreme Court, UK 65, 108

surveys 121–2

technical character, patents/inventions 131, 135, 136–7, 139

territory, right of property owners to exclude others from 29–30

Trade Mark Register 279, 280

trade marks 10–11, 17–18, 22, 232–56

brand extension 237–8

colour, registration as a trade mark 27–8

Commission reform proposals 246

double identity 239

established characters 44–5

ex ante versus ex post decision making 99–105

exclusive rights provided to owners 17

fair competition 247–8

form and substance, correspondence between 191

functions 244–5, 250–51

graphic representation requirement 28

grounds for refusing registration 27, 100, 101, 104–5, 175

identity 10, 149, 175, 191, 239, 240, 241, 244, 248, 251, 254, 256, 282

and individualism 191

information systems and networking 252–3

informed choice 255

infringement claims 101–3, 238–9

keywords 242

likelihood of confusion 6, 101, 102, 103

luxury goods 254–5

morality issues, and bias 114–15

network effects 280

owners’ rights versus claimed rights to free use 235–6

protectable subject matter, defining boundaries of 27, 148–9, 174–6

public policy, contrary to 116

registration system 27, 100–101

rule-bound decisions 248

similarity test 6, 11, 101–3, 103, 175, 176, 244

Soviet Union, representation of the coat of arms 116

sports clubs and associations 236–7, 240

statutory defences to infringement claims 238–9

ubiquitous nature of 233

trusts, non-express 72

uncertainty 46, 54, 67, 82, 84, 150, 259–62, 269, 274–8

patents or inventions 152, 153, 273, 278

reducing 19, 21, 22, 265, 266, 267

research and development (R&D) 258, 259

and rights 262

versus risk 259

validity 266, 273, 278

unconscionability 4, 72, 74

United States

America Invents Act (AIA) 91, 98

compared to United Kingdom 80–81

first-to-invent scheme, priorty determination 91

patents 80–81, 269

priority dates, patents/inventions 98

Vaver, David 80, 265

Wagner, S 258

Waldron, Jeremy 197, 215

Wendell Holmes, Oliver 203

White, Alan 223

Younger, Judge 111–13