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The Generational Welfare Contract

Justice, Institutions and Outcomes

Simon Birnbaum, Tommy Ferrarini, Kenneth Nelson and Joakim Palme

This groundbreaking book brings together perspectives from political philosophy and comparative social policy to discuss generational justice. Contributing new insights about the preconditions for designing sustainable, inclusive policies for all of society, the authors expose the possibilities of supporting egalitarian principles in an aging society through balanced generational welfare contracts.
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Index

Justice, Institutions and Outcomes

Simon Birnbaum, Tommy Ferrarini, Kenneth Nelson and Joakim Palme

ageing crisis 1
age-related social risks 12, 5, 18, 62
childhood 43, 44, 47, 51
inequality see inequality
old age 44, 45, 51
protection for 50
working age 5, 445, 51
balanced welfare contracts 17, 35, 367, 40, 41, 50, 512, 53, 135
employment outcomes relation 1078
population ageing, and 140
reducing poverty 62
see also unbalanced welfare contracts
Brundtland Report 26
citizenship
development of 22, 62
rights 910
social see social citizenship
cooperation
intergenerational 1922, 133
welfare enhancing 79
cycle of poverty 45
demographic transitions 1, 10
difference principle 57
distribution 16
conflicts in 2
developments 67
distributive mechanisms 7, 31
distributive processes 31
earnings-related benefits 110
outcomes 63
re- 17, 65, 110
political economy of 31, 35
regression analysis 7077
trade-offs 645
Easterlin paradox 83
economic slow-down 1
economic vulnerabilities 62
employment 120
measuring 111
outcomes see employment outcomes
protection 11920
un- see unemployment
see also labor market
employment outcomes 1078, 120
participation rates 111, 112, 113
Esping-Andersen’s tripartite categorization of welfare states 45
EU 2020 Growth Strategy (2010) 145
fixed proportional shares 38, 39
future research 142
generation, definition 5
generational balance 16, 1356, 1389
generational conflict 323, 35, 39, 122
generational deficit 1367
generational equity 138
generational justice 2, 34, 7, 1617, 258, 29, 389, 1322
just savings see just savings
Musgrave rule 38
political philosophy of 16
prudential lifespan approach see prudential lifespan
relational equality see relational equality
stabilizing 379
theories of 6
generational politics 16, 1234
–class politics differentiation 123
interest mediation 122, 131
special interest groups 1234
generational trade-off 567, 139
generational welfare contract
balanced see balanced welfare contracts
ideal-typical 312
moral significance of 16, 1718
partisan politics, and 125, 1267, 130
pro-child 523
pro-old 51, 59, 135
pro-work 51, 59, 70, 135
regression analysis, and 125, 1267, 130
unbalanced see unbalanced welfare contracts
global financial crises 1, 14041
Great Recession (2008) 1, 114
income
inequality 634
determinants of 63
protection 9, 21
age-related risks, for 245, 47
criticism of 24
–social inclusion trade-offs 109
replacement see income replacement
income replacement 425, 47, 49, 52, 55, 58
child benefits 478
fiscalization of 478
means-tested 57, 645
pensions 48
rates 48, 50, 71, 72
sickness benefits 48
social assistance see social assistance
unemployment benefits 48, 109
inequality
age-related 17
gender-based 110
income 634
increasing 1323
social 13
labor market generating 107
intergenerational cooperation 1922
intergenerational war 32
investment
foreign 144
human capital, in 26, 131, 140
social 33, 107, 116, 37
trade 144
just institutions 18, 25, 26, 278
content of 27
supporting social preconditions of 29, 934, 133
just savings 18, 258, 133
accumulation–maintenance distinction 256
labor market
generating social inequality 107
participation rates 112, 113
female 112
male 112
rigidity hypothesis 107, 10911
see also employment
life stages 5, 20, 245
adolescence 10, 143
childhood 43, 44, 47, 51
old age 44, 45, 51
phases of vulnerability, as 6
transitional 10
Lisbon Agenda 1445
measuring social policy 89
comparative analysis 1112
empirical analysis 1213, 46
intervention studies 11
path dependency 456
migration 1434
moral hazards 109
National Pensioners’ Organization
(Sweden) 32
negative reciprocity 35
overview 1315
paradox of redistribution 17, 35
pensions 48, 100
balanced contracts and 134
reform 10, 323, 38, 124
unbalanced contracts and 1345, 139
political economy of redistribution
31, 35
political equality 27
politics
class 122, 1234
confessional 1257
cumulative partisan cabinet shares 1257, 128
generational see generational politics
left wing 1257
new 123
secular centrist/right 125, 127
population ageing
fiscal challenges of 31, 123, 140
partisan politics, and 1234
positive-sum solutions 7, 40, 134
generational conflict and 323
hypothesis 347
poverty
cycle 45
generational welfare contracts and 6970, 135
line 66
outcomes 14, 69
rates 66, 67, 68, 147
increasing 67, 69
reduction 62
risks 77
thresholds 65, 68, 778
trends 659
power resource theory 123, 125
prudential lifespan 18, 1922, 23, 28
quality of life
objective 8081
subjective 812
see also subjective well-being
reducing poverty see poverty, reduction
re-familization 140
relational equality 18, 225, 29, 656
ideal of 133
objective of 23
retirement benefits see pensions
social assistance 57, 589
social capital 945
–trust affinity 94
social citizenship
causes of 122
definition 9
development 62
equalization of 512
expansion of 13940
generational structure of 47, 54, 56, 59, 122, 133, 134
balance in, 1356
cross-country differences in 5054
regression analysis 547
rights see social citizenship, rights
Social Citizenship Indicator Program 42
social citizenship rights 34, 1334
age-related 4650
balancing 50
childhood 910
social cohesion 1445
social contract theory
generational contracts 3
social justice, and 24
social expenditures 89
social inclusion 24, 144
–income protection trade-offs 109
social insurance
age-related 142
income replacement see income replacement
liberal model 46
replacement rates 48, 49, 50
state-corporatist model 45, 143
eligibility in 456
social justice
contract theory, and 24
ideational force, as 132
social minimums 57, 58
social policy 3940
distributive processes 31
dual carer/earner models 110
fair financing 38
family-related 47, 136
expansion of 139
fiscalization of child benefits 478
gender equal 11011
modernization of 141
feedbacks 7
frameworks 78
generational trade-offs in 567, 139
indicators 42
income replacement see income replacement
institutions 17
measuring see measuring social policy
mutually enforcing processes in 7
reform 32, 138
social investment perspective 107
Social Policy Indicators Database 42
social spending 89
structural equation models 736, 119, 148, 149
subjective well-being 7980, 812, 91
cross-national differences 856
generational contracts and 834, 856
happiness 85, 88, 89
life satisfaction 85, 87, 89
materialist perspective 823
psycho-social perspective 83
regression analysis 8691
research 82, 84
social determinants perspective 82
welfare states, and 823
see also quality of life
sustainability 136
environmental 1378
welfare states, of 137
Swedish Institute for Social Research 42
tax and transfer systems 110
trust 934, 95
cross-country differences 99100
generational patterns of 98, 99100
inherently multidimensional 95
low 93
political/vertical 945, 978, 99, 101, 104, 135
age and 105
regression analysis 1035
research 93
–social capital affinity 945
social/horizontal 94, 956, 99, 102, 104
age and 100
shaping social ties 105
universalism, and 968
UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals 145
unbalanced welfare contracts 35, 36, 50, 52, 53, 1345see also balanced welfare contracts
unemployment 107, 120
benefits 48, 10910
pathways 11920
rates 114, 115, 116
universalism 968, 124
walk tall 23, 24, 57, 108, 137, 140
welfare-related outcomes 24
welfare state
capacity 1, 31, 62, 934, 97, 134
challenges of 1
conservative 45
distributive mechanisms 7, 31
institutional structures 9, 62, 77
liberal 45
-outcomes causal chain 78, 35
pro-elderly bias 32, 124
regimes 456
social democratic 45
youth question 10