Edited by Michiel Bliemer, Corinne Mulley and Claudine J. Moutou
The evolution of institutions that manage transport systems has historically been based on task or functional specialization, primarily to achieve organizational effectiveness. Thus modern specialist road or highway agencies, for example, date back a century or more and are still important in most jurisdictions (usually sub-national but often national in small countries). Public transport agencies are also usually stand-alone entities. Functional separation often leads to concerns about agencies operating in ‘silos’, not maximizing their potential collective contribution to broad societal goals. This sometimes has become one of the motivations for agency mergers. The importance of closely connecting planning of transport and land use has long been recognized in both planning fields. Transport is a powerful shaper of land use. This power means that it is critical for a city to understand the way it wants its land use to develop before it decides on the shape of its transport network. This will help to avoid unintended adverse consequences and increase the likelihood of synergistic impacts.
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