Edited by Michiel Bliemer, Corinne Mulley and Claudine J. Moutou
Chapter 20: City logistics
There has been great concern about the sustainable economic growth of cities due to urbanization and demographic changes within aging societies. In 2010, about half of the world’s population of 7 billion people were living in urban areas according to a United Nations survey and this is predicted to be over 60 percent by 2030. Also, an increase of elderly people and a decrease of younger generation has led to a high degree of pressure on municipalities to spend more money for supporting medical and nursing services for elderly people. Under such circumstances issues of urban freight transport to balance the economic growth and the improvement of environment in urban areas need to be addressed. Efficient urban freight transport systems are essential for the production, inventory and distribution of commodities. However, these activities sometimes create nuisance including traffic congestion, negative impacts on the environment such as air pollution, noise, vibration, visual intrusion, as well as crashes and higher energy consumption. To remove these negative aspects and create more sustainable urban freight transport, the concept of city logistics was proposed (Taniguchi et al. 2001a).
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