Edited by Michiel Bliemer, Corinne Mulley and Claudine J. Moutou
Chapter 25: Managing on-road public transport
Cities continue to play a leading global economic and social role. In 2007, for the first time in history, more than half of the worlds’ population were city dwellers (United Nations Population Fund 2007). Between 2000 and 2030 the worlds’ urban population is expected to double. This is the ‘Urban Millennium’ where the functioning of cities has a principal influence on human endeavour (United Nations Population Fund 2007). The prospects for the development and operation of transport systems to support growing cities, particularly those in western developed countries such as Australia, is extremely challenging. Travel is dominated by the private car (Cosgrove et al. 2009) which is becoming increasingly problematic from a number of perspectives: ● Traffic congestion is now widely recognized as a major and growing urban transportation problem (Cervero 1991; Downs 1992; Arnott and Small 1994). In Australia congestion costs AU$9.4 billion per annum. (2005) and is expected to rise to AU$20.4 billion by 2020 (Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics 2007). ● There are also social impacts of car traffic on urban liveability (Vuchic 1999) including the separation of urban communities by busy roads and impacts on social disadvantage (Rosenbloom 2007).
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