The Economic Characteristics of Developing Jurisdictions
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The Economic Characteristics of Developing Jurisdictions

Their Implications for Competition Law

Edited by Michal S. Gal, Mor Bakhoum, Josef Drexl, Eleanor M. Fox and David J. Gerber

There is ongoing debate as to what competition law and policy is most suitable for developing jurisdictions. This book argues that the unique characteristics of developing jurisdictions matter when crafting and enforcing competition law and these should be placed at the heart of analysis when considering which competition laws are judicious. Through examining different factors that influence the adoption and implementation of competition laws in developing countries, this book illustrates the goals of such laws, the content of the legal rules, and the necessary institutional, political, ideological and legal conditions that must complement such rules. The book integrates development economics with competition law to provide an alternative vision of competition law, concluding that ‘one competition law and policy size’ does not fit ‘all socio-economic contexts'.
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Chapter 6: Competition issues affecting the agricultural sector in selected developing countries: key findings from selected UNCTAD market studies

Ulla Schwager


In the economies of most developing countries, the agricultural sector plays a crucial role in terms of contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employment and potential poverty reduction. This importance of the agricultural sector has recently been summarised by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): Well over half of the developing world’s population – 3.1 billion people, or 45 per cent of all humanity – live in rural areas. Of them roughly 2.5 billion derive their livelihoods from agriculture. For many economies, especially those of developing countries, agriculture can be an engine of economic growth. Approximately two-thirds of the world’s agricultural value added is generated in developing countries, and in many of them the agricultural sector contributes as much as 30% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and is a source of employment for two-thirds of the labour force. According to the World Bank, growth in the agricultural sector can be up to 3.2 times more effective at reducing USD$1/day poverty than growth in other sectors. Importantly, agriculture can provide a haven of resilience against global economic and financial turmoil, often more effectively than other sectors. However, economic growth in the agricultural sector in developing countries is hindered by a multitude of factors, including a lack of investment, missing or weak infrastructure, stagnant agricultural productivity, a lack of opportunities for income diversification and poorly functioning agricultural markets.

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