Edited by Hartmut Hirsch-Kreinsen and Isabel Schwinge
Chapter 6: High-growth LMT firms and the evolution of the Russian economy
Joseph Schumpeter was among the first to distinguish the innovative activity of an entrepreneur from technological innovations-and much more so from inventions. He stated that the main task of the entrepreneur is to carry out new combinations which might be not just technological but also marketing-oriented (new markets for existing goods) or managerial (new forms of industrial organization) in nature (Schumpeter, 1951: 131-5). At the time of writing, the best-known reference work about tracking innovative processes with such a broad understanding is the Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data (OECD, 2005a; see also the theoretical concept of KIE: Malerba, 2010). In practice, however, innovations are often considered almost exclusively to consist in the development of new technologies. Moreover, the degree of innovativeness of a firm or a branch tends to be reduced to easily measurable aspects of their technological activity: the level of R & D expenditures, the number of research personnel, or the number of registered patents. The emergence of concrete quantitative recommendations of the OECD (1996; 2002; 2005b) which divides various industries of the economy into categories of 'high-tech', 'medium-high-tech', 'medium-low-tech', or 'low-tech', derived as the ratio of R & D expenditures to the output value of a branch, could be considered as the logical conclusion of this tendency. Nevertheless, the R & D-oriented approach never found substantial support in at least two spheres of research, specifically, low-tech industries and high-growth firms.
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.