The Economic and Legal Effectiveness of the European Union’s Anti-Money Laundering Policy
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The Economic and Legal Effectiveness of the European Union’s Anti-Money Laundering Policy

Brigitte Unger, Joras Ferwerda, Melissa van den Broek and Ioana Deleanu

Official government policies against money laundering in the EU have been in place for roughly 25 years, after much concerted effort and a great deal of time and money invested. This volume examines the anti-money laundering policy of the EU Member States in connection to the threat of money laundering they face.
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Chapter 13: Summary and conclusions

Brigitte Unger


Member States differ in the way in which they respond to money laundering threats. Policy responses to laundering activities range from the implementation of the Third Directive and the criminalization of money laundering and terrorist financing to the enforcement of preventive policy, prosecution and, ultimately, the conviction of launderers and terrorists. The book therefore comprises five steps or building blocks: _ the threat of money laundering; _ the legal implementation of AML policy; _ the execution of AML policy; _ the enforcement of AML both nationally and internationally; and _ an effectiveness evaluation and cost-benefit analysis.

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