Individual Wellbeing and Career Experiences
- New Horizons in Management series
Edited by Ronald J. Burke, Kathryn M. Page and Cary Cooper
Chapter 12: Protean career orientation: a review of existing and emerging research
In the contemporary economic environment, conditions are unpredictable, turbulent, and not munificent. Individuals’ careers are undergoing a fundamental shift as permanent employment conditions decline and short-term contracts and job insecurity rise. The largest employer in the United States is Manpower Inc., a temporary work agency, and the US Government Accountability Office estimated in 2006 that about 30 percent of the US workforce was ‘contingent’ (Hill, 2014). The current generation of graduates entering the workforce (i.e., the so-called ‘millennials’) face daunting career challenges getting launched in their careers and face the prospect of being the first generation to potentially do less well, economically, than their parents.
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