Edited by B. Mak Arvin and Byron Lew
Chapter 6: MDGs and international cooperation: an analysis of private and public aid and the role of education
The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), among other factors, have increased interest in the challenges facing international cooperation in development to alleviate poverty and promote sustainable development. Many debates have focused on the role of official development aid (ODA). At the same time, it is also important to analyze other channels of international cooperation, including the role of private aid, foreign investment, trade and other factors relevant to development. As stated in the report by the US Agency for International Development (USAID, 2014): Thirty years ago, 70% of resource flows from the US to the developing world came in the form of ODA. Today, 80% of those resource flows come from foreign direct investment, private donations, remittances, and other non-governmental sources. ODA accounts for only 14% of these resource flows today, underscoring the increasing importance of the private sector in the development process. Adelman et al. (2013) present an interesting report on global philanthropy and remittances, based on data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Bank and other sources. They estimate that the US contribution to developing countries in the year 2011 was around $278.5 billion, where ODA accounted only for $30.9 billion (11 percent), while private philanthropy accounted for $39 billion (14 percent), remittances for $100.2 billion (36 percent) and private capital flows for $108.4 billion (39 percent).
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