Handbook of Research methods and Applications in Environmental Studies
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Handbook of Research methods and Applications in Environmental Studies

Edited by Matthias Ruth

This volume presents methods to advance the understanding of interdependencies between the well-being of human societies and the performance of their biophysical environment. It showcases applications to material and energy use; urbanization and technological transition; economic growth and social vulnerabilities; development and governance of social and industrial networks; the role of history, culture, and science itself in carrying out analysis and guiding policy; as well as the role of theory, data, and models in guiding decisions.
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Chapter 8: Action research for coherently integrated sustainability policy design and implementation

Harn Wei Kua


Action research – also known as participatory action research, community-based study, co-operative enquiry, action science and action learning – is a system of research methods that involves researchers engaging or/and collaborating with members of an organization, community or network (that is, a certain stakeholder group) with an aim to improve certain pre-determined conditions relevant to this particular stakeholder group (Greenwood and Levin, 2007). In carrying out the research, action researchers work with, and often within, the target stakeholder groups and hence enjoy the benefit of understanding the nature of the problems from various perspectives.

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