Handbook of Research methods and Applications in Environmental Studies
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Handbook of Research methods and Applications in Environmental Studies

Edited by Matthias Ruth

This volume presents methods to advance the understanding of interdependencies between the well-being of human societies and the performance of their biophysical environment. It showcases applications to material and energy use; urbanization and technological transition; economic growth and social vulnerabilities; development and governance of social and industrial networks; the role of history, culture, and science itself in carrying out analysis and guiding policy; as well as the role of theory, data, and models in guiding decisions.
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Chapter 16: Analyzing green growth: integrating models to assess green economy – methods and applications to Mexico

María Eugenia Ibarrarán, Andrea M. Bassi and Roy Boyd


Many countries, both industrialized and developing, have been underperforming recently in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Lack of a formal policy to promote specific sectors and low private investment, both domestic and foreign, are crucial causes of such performance. Hidden costs such as poor infrastructure or growing insecurity lead to low investment and thus lower growth (Batra et al. 2003; Dollar et al. 2003). Other countries have had acceptable to significant GDP growth, but this has not necessarily translated into development because, even though growth may generate more opportunities for some people, it may also cause the deterioration of living conditions of others by requiring more resources leading to more pollution and depletion. Economic growth may then leave large parts of the population exposed to larger inequality, economic and social exclusion, poverty, and to a deteriorated environment where no true development, understood as an improvement in living conditions, is achieved. This debate of growth versus development has been present in policy and research agendas for many years. One notable case is Daly et al. (1989); another is Georgescu-Roegen (1971), but there are many more. They state that the main issue is development rather than growth.

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