Frameworks and Policy Applications in Freight and Passenger Transport
Edited by Joseph S. Szyliowicz, Luca Zamparini, Genserik L.L. Reniers and Dawna L. Rhoades
Chapter 11: Multimodal freight transportation security in Brazil
Brazil, formally known as the Federal Republic of Brazil, is the largest and most populated country in South America. Bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, and every other country in South America except Ecuador and Chile, Brazil faces a variety of cultures and neighboring governments. Claimed by Portugal in 1500, Brazil gained its independence in 1822 after three centuries of Portuguese rule and was then governed by a monarchical system until the military proclaimed it a republic in 1889. There were several military and populist governments until the military peacefully relinquished power to civilian rulers in 1985 (Fausto, 1999; CIA Factbook, 2013). Organized into 26 states and a federal district, Brazil has a network of 5564 municipalities connected by a myriad of roads, rail lines, airports and waterways. Brazil’s GDP makes it the seventh largest economy in the world as well as one of the fastest growing, and as such it has been grouped with three other emerging countries referred to as the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China).
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