The Rise of the City
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The Rise of the City

Spatial Dynamics in the Urban Century

Edited by Karima Kourtit, Peter Nijkamp and Roger R. Stough

This book examines urban growth and the dynamics that are transforming the city and city regions in the 21st century focusing specifically on the spatial aspects of this process in the “Urban Century”. Forces that are driving city growth include agglomeration spillovers, concentration of innovation and entrepreneurship, diversity of information and knowledge resources, and better amenities and higher wages. These benefits produce a positive reinforcing system that attracts more people with new ideas and information, fuelling innovation, new products and services and more high-wage jobs, thereby attracting more people. Such growth also produces undesirable effects such as air and water pollution, poverty, congestion and crowding. These combined factors both impact and change the geography and spatial dynamics of the city. These transformations and the public policies that may be critical to the quality of life, both today and in the future, are the substance of this book.
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Chapter 8: Innovation capacity, workforce diversity and intra-industrial externalities: a study of German establishments

Stephan Brunow and Valentina Miersch


Knowledge-based economies focusing on production and services need to be innovative in the long-run in order to secure long-term welfare. In a global world where countries compete to create and produce the latest market-leading products, the innovation capacity of a country’s domestic industry is of particular importance. There are various types of innovation, namely the introduction of products new to the market, the improvement of the quality of existing products or the adoption of new technologies (Grossman and Helpman, 1991). In order to remain competitive in the long-run it seems beneficial to consider all of these areas. However, innovation is costly and there is uncertainty regarding its success. According to existing literature, workforce diversity with respect to age, cultural background, human capital and occupations may improve the innovative capacity of an establishment (Van der Vegt and Janssen,2003, Ozgen et al., 2011a, Østergaard et al., 2011, Brunow and Stockinger, 2013). Then fewer resources are required to achieve more innovation. In this chapter we investigate in particular what kinds of establishments are relatively more innovative and undertake more than one type of innovation. For this purpose an ordered logit model is estimated using German survey and administrative data. We consider establishment characteristics, the diversity of the workforce employed and possible regional spillover effects within industries as a proxy for regional innovation systems (Griliches, 1979, Camagni and Capello, 2013).

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