Marketization, Managerialism and Welfare State Professionalism
Edited by Tanja Klenk and Emmanuele Pavolini
Chapter 12: Interactions of governance and professionalism in higher education: a qualitative longitudinal study in the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom
Across Europe, within the current welfare state systems, the influence of new public management (NPM) and new public governance (NPG) is still evolving, particularly through the focus on governing performance in all aspects of management (Radin 2000). Concerning the higher education sector, NPM resulted into the adaptation and implementation of organizational strategies, structures, technologies, management instruments and values, features that are commonly found in the private business sector (Aucoin 1990; Deem 1998; Teelken 2004). European higher education systems are supposed to become more market oriented and universities should be able to compete for clients, funding and prestige, in order to meet the growing pressure to cut costs (Scharitzer and Korunka 2000; Christensen and Lægreid 2001). This occurs primarily through such instruments as pay-for-performance, performance appraisal, performance budgeting and performance indicators. While these developments have been going on for about 15 years, their actual effects are now increasingly visible at organizational and individual level. Consequently, we are increasingly familiar with a higher education sector that features a mix of elements, including hierarchy, networks, market orientation and self-organizing, demanding increased levels of transparency and accountability.
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