Handbook of Transnational Environmental Crime
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Handbook of Transnational Environmental Crime

Edited by Lorraine Elliott and William H. Schaedla

Crimes associated with the illegal trade in wildlife, timber and fish stocks, pollutants and waste have become increasingly transnational, organized and serious. They warrant attention because of their environmental consequences, their human toll, their impacts on the rule of law and good governance, and their links with violence, corruption and a range of crossover crimes. This ground-breaking, multi-disciplinary Handbook brings together leading scholars and practitioners to examine key sectors in transnational environmental crime and to explore its most significant conceptual, operational and enforcement challenges.
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Chapter 21: The Basel Convention: a tool for combating environmental crime and enhancing the management of hazardous and other wastes

Tatiana Terekhova


Increases in the production and amount of waste entering transnational trade has been a function of growth in global production and consumption, globalization and trade liberalization as well as a dramatic increase in the chemical industry. Hazardous wastes can contain heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and other toxic chemicals. Poor environmental management of such wastes can cause profound adverse effects on human health and the environment, including respiratory and skin diseases, eye infections and cancer as well as pollution, contaminated sites and water bodies, and loss of biodiversity. Advanced technological solutions are increasingly required for recycling and, in certain cases, for limiting waste management options regarding disposal due to the hazardous characteristics of such wastes (for example, polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastics). The perception that wastes exhibit hazardous characteristics mainly at the local level changed in the 1970s and 1980s. Industrialized countries became alarmed about deteriorating air quality in cities, water pollution and the environment in general, and introduced corresponding measures, including strict environmental regulations. The environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes also implied high costs. Some companies found a cheap solution by transporting hazardous wastes to the developing world where environmental awareness was much less developed and regulations and enforcement mechanisms were lacking (Peiry 2010).

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