Fostering the Implementation of Creative Ideas in Organizations
Edited by Miha Škerlavaj, Matej Černe, Anders Dysvik and Arne Carlsen
Chapter 22: Adjusting national innovation policies to support open and networked innovation systems
In this chapter, we will focus on specific policies and decisions that policy-makers can make to foster innovation. These policies are facing new challenges and have to adjust to a new, much more open and globalized world that was unimaginable as recently as 20 years ago (Wooldridge, 2010). They are based on two major shifts in the economic environment. First, expansion of innovation activities from large companies to other companies (the decline of the Fordist regime of innovation organization after the 1970s). The share of industry R & D conducted by enterprises with more than 10 000 employees has decreased from 85 percent of total business enterprise R & D in the 1970s to approximately 50 percent now (Ebersberger et al., 2011). Second, geographical expansion of innovation activities (globalization). These changes influence innovation activities of all stakeholders. In the twenty-first century, companies innovate in an environment in which competition is global, knowledge is spread more widely, R & D investments are increasing, and product life cycles are shortening (OECD, 2008). Policy-makers need to adjust to these changes with new policies as well. Many national innovation policy strategies and countless policy measures have been implemented recently with a different degree of success but policy-making has not sufficiently responded to new, societal challenges that influence the environment of innovation and creativity (OECD, 2011).
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