Edited by Geert De Baere and Jan Wouters
Chapter 10: The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal and its contribution to international law
The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal (IUSCT or the Tribunal) is one of the oldest international tribunals in The Hague. The Tribunal was established in 1981, as one of the measures to resolve the 1979 crisis between Iran and the US. To fully understand the circumstances that brought about its creation, however, it is necessary to go back in time to the 1950s. Before embarking on a short historical journey, it is important to mention the geopolitical context. Iran’s geographic position south of the Soviet Union, the presence of spread of communism and its oil reserves, made Iran strategically, politically and economically important. Following the Second World War, Iran had close links with the West, in particular with Great Britain. Iran’s oil industry was controlled by the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) and the British had significant influence over Iran’s internal affairs. In 1953, following the 1951 nationalization of Iran’s oil industry and a series of unsuccessful attempts to find an agreement between Iran and the United Kingdom (UK) on a new oil agreement or on the kind of compensation the UK would be entitled to, the Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh was overthrown in a coup d’état orchestrated by the UK and the United States (US), in collaboration with Mosaddegh’s domestic opponents. Mohammad Reza Shah himself supported the coup and, after a brief exile in Italy, he returned to power until he was overthrown by the Islamic Revolution in 1979.
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.