The Economics of Cultural Diversity
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The Economics of Cultural Diversity

Edited by Peter Nijkamp, Jacques Poot and Jessie Bakens

The populations of many countries in the world are becoming more culturally diverse. This spurs a growing need for an informed debate on the socio-economic implications of cultural diversity. This book offers a solid statistical and econometric perspective on this topical subject by bringing together studies from different countries in Europe and North America. The research in this volume sheds light on several consequences of cultural diversity, including positive impacts on innovation, growth and entrepreneurship, with contributions highlighting how there can be negative social effects on communities. Throughout the volume, it is evident that the effects of cultural diversity on socio-economic outcomes depend largely on the characteristics of local economies, populations and communities.
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Chapter 12: The cultural percolation of new knowledge: a regional analysis of the cultural impact on knowledge creation in EU27

Annie Tubadji and Peter Nijkamp


Knowledge has long been discussed in economics, but largely as an input in local development and much less as a result of human choice with respect to research efforts and R & D investment. Yet, the literature has managed to elucidate the enormous importance of the creation of knowledge. The idea that the key to change in the economic structure and the source of a structural jump in development is the creation and application of new knowledge (i.e. innovation) emerged as far back as Marx and his concept of creative destruction (Marx, 1859; 1867; Elliott, 1978, 1979; Harvey, 2006, 2010). Since then, the potential of new knowledge to change the initial conditions in a locality and cause the rise of a new economic order has been termed creative destruction, with the concept gaining popularity due to the works of Schumpeter (1939, 1942). Based on Schumpeter’s ‘quality ladder model’ of knowledge creation, R & D investment was analysed as a source of innovation dependent on a firm-specific decision (for some recent examples, see Florida, 2002a, 2002b, 2005; Chrobot-Mason et al., 2009; van Knippenberg et al., 2011; Brunow and Nijkamp, 2012; Trax et al., 2012; Phelps, 2013; Mokyr, 2014).

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