The Tools of Policy Formulation
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The Tools of Policy Formulation

Actors, Capacities, Venues and Effects

Edited by Andrew J. Jordan and John R. Turnpenny

A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via the Elgaronline platform - www.elgaronline.com/view/9781783477036.xml Policy analysts are accustomed to thinking in terms of tools and instruments. Yet an authoritative examination of the tools which have been developed to formulate new policies is missing. This book is the first of its kind to distinguish the defining characteristics of the main policy formulation tools, and offer a fresh way of understanding how, why and by whom they are selected, as well as the effects they produce in practice.
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Chapter 11: The effects of targets and indicators on policy formulation: narrowing down, crowding out and locking in

Christina Boswell, Steve Yearley, Colin Fleming, Eugénia Rodrigues and Graham Spinardi