Concepts, Implementation and Effectiveness
Edited by Michael Faure, Peter De Smedt and An Stas
Chapter 4: The role of networks in ensuring compliance and strengthening coordination: a comparative analysis on INECE, ECENA, RENA and REC Turkey
The compliance issue has turned out to be one of the major concerns for global environmental governance (GEG) in both international environmental law (IEL) and international environmental politics (IEP) in recent decades. To illustrate, the need to strengthen compliance has been precisely stressed in Agenda 21 (chapter 8, para. 21; chapter 39, para. 9) as a response to effective governance of environmental problems. Agenda 21 is currently a soft-law document, it has no binding effect in international law. However, when the efforts to create an all-encompassing UN Treaty – the Draft International Covenant on Environment and Development which contains provisions for reporting, compliance mechanisms and dispute-settlement mechanisms (Articles 67, 68, 69) – are taken into account, its soft-law recommendations become more important. This is particularly because this draft Covenant aims not only to consolidate existing legal principles related to the environment and development, but also to convert Agenda 21’s soft-law recommendations into legally binding hard international law.
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