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Rethinking Intellectual Property

Balancing Conflicts of Interest in the Constitutional Paradigm

Gustavo Ghidini

Intellectual property law is built on constitutional foundations and is underpinned by the twin freedoms of freedom of expression and freedom of economic enterprise. In this thoughtful evaluation, Gustavo Ghidini offers up a reconstruction of the core features of each intellectual property paradigm, including patents, copyright, and trademarks, suggesting measures for reform to allow intellectual property to become socially beneficial for all.
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Index

Balancing Conflicts of Interest in the Constitutional Paradigm

Gustavo Ghidini

Abbott, F.M. 354

Abbott, R. 115

Abel, I. 102

Adidas289, 298, 305, 310, 312, 318, 322

AI (artificial intelligence) 163

alienation of rights 14–15, 171

Almeling, D. 91

Amazon218

Amazon/Austro-Mechana217

American Broadcasting v. Aereo219

Amgen Inc. v. Hoechst Marion Roussel27

Anderman, S.D. 7, 339, 345, 347

Angelopoulos, C. 214

Annand, R. 313

Apple Inc. v. Motorola Inc.354, 360

applied art 227–8, 232–3

Areeda, P. 349

Arezzo, E. 144, 158, 197, 223, 334, 346, 349

Armstrong, A. 370

Arrow, K. 82

Asahi Glass Co. v. Pentech Pharmaceuticals335, 347

Ascarelli, T. 313

Aspirin279, 332

Associated Press v. United States349

AstraZeneca v. Commission58, 359

Atnasiu, I. 335

Austria 137

Auteri, P. 172

Authors Guild v. Google Inc199

Babyliss v. Commission278

Balganesh, S. 158

Banca Intesa298

Bang & Olufsen315, 317

Barbie, Mattel v. MCA Records307

Baron, J.C. 360–61, 363

Basheer, S. 32, 115

Baumol, W. 60, 356–7, 366

Bayer Co. v. United Drug Co.321

Bayh-Dole Act 1980 (US) 18

Beatle/The Beatles271

Beebe, B. 304–5, 384

Beier, F.-K. 37

Bentham, J. 13, 19

Bently, L. 182, 295

Bergqvist, J. 313

Berman, B. 278

Berne Convention 188614

alterations and amendments 179

applied art 227–8, 232–3

authors' moral rights 48, 171, 173–4

commercial publication 175–6

compulsory licensing 47

computer software, as literary works 240–41

copyright duration 227–8

copyright protected works 168–9, 173

creative character 173–4, 176

derivative works 179–80, 184–5, 240–41

discretionary exclusions 47–9

exceptions 198–9

free uses entitlements 191–3

individual rights to IPR 16

industrial vs. intellectual rights 4–5, 176, 227–8

quotation right 210–11

three-step-test 200

translations 184–5

Bessen, J. 114

Best IT World (India) Private Ltd v. Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson371

BestWater193

biodiversity, equitable sharing 41, 106–7

biotechnological inventions, patentability 53, 88–9, 97, 110

Birnhack, M. 55

Bjoerkenfeld, M. 306

Blakeney, M. 69

Blind, K. 357

BMW276

BMW-Motorhaube312

Bochovic, J. 112

Bolar clauses 99, 104

Bolton, M.K. 102

Bonito Boats102

Botolist and Botacyl/Botox271

Bowe, C. 115

Brandeis, J. 102

Braun, A. 295

BRCA1/BRCA2 genes 88–9

Bresnahan, T.F. 236

Broccoli II109

Brown, A.B.L. 26, 282

Brown, R.S. 221

Bryer, L. 278

Bugbee, B. 35

Burk, D.L. 169

Calboli, I. 275, 312–13

Calvados/Verlados 265, 315, 333

Camel/Camelo271

Campus, G. 188

Canada 199

Carlo Roncato/RV Roncato e Roncato271

Carrier, M. 351

Cassina229

Cavani G. 291

Centrafarm120, 339, 346

Chace Act 1891 (US) 35

Chien, C.V. 366

Chin, D. 199

China 360

Ciani, J. 166

Citi/Citibank271

Claeryn295

cloud technology 218–19

Coca Cola290, 312–13, 317

Cohen, F. 20, 303

Colangelo, G. 332, 344, 356

collaborative production models 44

collecting societies

conflicts of interest 30–31

online platforms, interaction with 222–3

collective management

out-of-commerce works, use by cultural heritage institutions 215–16

Colman55

Coombe, R. 29

Commission Communication on Guidelines on Article 101 TFEU and horizontal co-operation agreements 95, 140, 343, 351, 354, 367

Commission Communication on Online Platforms and the Digital Single Market 165, 224, 243

competition

and computer software

benefits for 244–7

conflicts 48, 243–4, 336

databases 243–4

de facto industry standards 350–55

network effects 245–6

PC market, vertical integration 236–7

technological dominance 336

trade secrets 336

conflicts with IPR 6–7, 17, 45–6, 59–60, 338–54

access vs. exploitation 59–60

collective interests 339–40

de facto industry standards 350–55

de jure industry standards 354–5

duty to share 345–58

exercise of holders' powers 339–45

existence vs. permitted exercise 345–6

free movement of goods 339

geo-blocking 340–41

group innovation 342–3

horizontal and vertical agreements 342–5

importance for 18–20

indispensability 347–8

judicial interference 340–41

and licensing 340–41, 356–8

network effects 351–4

paradox, (non)existence of 356–8

parallel imports 121–2, 341, 344–5

pro-competitive aspects of IPR 331–3, 354–5

and rule of reason 342

and secondary markets 352–4

technology pools 343–4

Technology Transfer Block Exemptions 342

and coopetition 78–9, 280–81, 340

and copyright 18–19, 48, 169

market dominance 335–6

neighbouring rights 190–91

pro-competitive aspects 332

corrective role 7, 59–60

databases 243–4

dominant position 9–10, 334

copyright 335–6

definition 337–8, 359

market partitioning 340

patents 334–5

trademarks 336–8

and industrial design protection 230–31

and innovation 42, 69–72, 114

derivative inventions 131–8

high-tech dependent inventions 131–8

implementation 132–4

substitutive innovation 92–6, 129–31

and new technology 42

numerus clausus principle 51–3, 169

and patents

conflicts 80–81, 116–17

derivative inventions 131–8, 332

disclosure vs. exclusivity 123–5

economic significance 134

equivalence 115–16, 130–31

essential facilities doctrine 45, 49, 56–7, 60–61, 335, 345–54, 357–8

exhaustion principle 120–22, 340–41

first to file 128, 145–8

high-tech dependent patents 131–8

imitation, by 101–4

implementation rights 132–4

indispensability 347–8

influences on 123–38

knowledge sharing 125–8

licensing, benefits of 134–5

market dominance 334–5

observation, study or testing 128

parallel imports 121–2, 341, 344–5

pro-competitive aspects 332

role in 18–19, 71–4, 80–81

substitutive innovation 92–6, 129–31

trade secrets 125–8

unitary patents 30

pro-competitive aspects of IPRs 331–3, 353–4

and trademarks

consumer loyalty 278–9

dominant position 336–8

impacts on 266–79, 306–8

implicit abrogation principle 316–17

importance for 18–20, 266–7

imported goods 274–5

law reform proposal impacts 285–91

licensing, and 337–8

market entry 272

market leverage 288–9, 293–4, 305–6

market power 277–9

misleading uses 280–83

multiple licensing 287–8

pro-competitive aspects 332–3

renowned trademarks 277–9, 282–3, 305–8, 337–8

selective distribution 275–6

territoriality 274–5, 293, 306–8

3-D shapes 311–20

trademark-patent linkages 278–9

unfair competition 289, 295–8, 303, 306–8, 318–20

vulgarization 274, 278–9, 291, 320–23, 338

unfair competition

assessment criteria, influences on 388–90

boycotts 333, 388

competitive interest conflicts 385–6

consumer dependence 388

focus of 333–4

IPRs, interaction with 333–4, 382–3, 385–6

law, development 383–5, 387–90

market, role of 387–8

misappropriation doctrine 304–5, 384, 386

multi-layered legislative approach 389–90

protections against 6, 17, 34, 103

regulatory limitations 381–2

renowned trademarks 289, 295–8, 303, 306–8, 318–20

3-D shape trademarks 318–20

and tort law 126, 386

trade secrets 126–7, 336

compulsory licensing

access vs. exploitation 59

copyright 47–9

criticism of 134–5, 137–8

and Developing and Least Developed Countries 40–41

essential facilities doctrine 43, 45, 49, 360–62

historical development 137

patents 104, 137–8

benefits and disadvantages 134–5

fair compensation 359–60

high-tech dependent patents 134–5

standard essential patents (SEPs) 358–60

TRIPs Agreement 40–41, 93, 137

computer software

and competition

benefits for 244–7

conflicts 48, 243–4, 336

databases 243–4

de facto industry standards 350–55

network effects 245–6

PC market, vertical integration 236–7

technological dominance 336

trade secrets 336

copyright protection

benefits 244–7

CONTU Commission (US) 238

derivative programs 240–41

EU law 238–41

historical development 235–8

innovative value certification 236–7

literary works, interpretation as 178, 238–41

need for, influences on 236–7

proportionality 241

rental and lending rights 186–8

reverse engineering, and 240–41

scope of 240–41

databases

and competition 243–4

sui generis right 86, 241–4

patentability

judicial interpretation 237–8

policy development 239–40

product vs. process patents 108

reform proposals 144

rule of doubt 237–8

conflicts of interest

assessment challenges 25

balance, challenges of 53–6

collecting societies 30–31

and collective interest 22, 57–8

competitive exploitation 23–5, 58–60

constitutional hierarchy 53–6

contractual 23

copyright 23–4

cultural 51–2

Developing and Least Developed Countries 31–41

dual concentric model of IPR 50–53

essential facilities doctrine 56–7, 345–54, 357–8, 360–62

exclusion vs. access 2–3, 21–2, 49–53, 56

freedom of access to information 28

generally 20

illegal exploitation 58–60

information society 28

knowledge vs. exploitation 21–2, 56, 60–61

licensors vs. licensees 20–21

normative solutions 51–3

open access models 24, 49–50

patents 22–3, 116–17

derivative inventions 57–8, 79–80, 125

product vs. process patents 107–10

propertization of data 29

and proportionality 54, 56–8

protectionism 26–31

qualification 54

refusal to grant licence 22–3

resolution 56

societal conflicts 24–6

and systemic consistency 51

trade secrets 29, 126–7, 336

trademarks 24–5

traditional knowledge 29

unitary patents 30

willing licensees 59–60

constitutional hierarchy, conflicts of interest 53–6

consumption, non-rivalry 81

Contreras, J.L. 373

Convention on Biodiversity 199241, 106–7

Convention on the Grant of European Patents 1973

Implementing Regulations 75

cooperative production models 44

coopetition 78–9, 280–81, 340

copyright see also computer software; industrial designs

access to knowledge vs. exploitation 61, 162–3, 191–4, 220–22

ancillary rights 28

benefits 50, 158–9

challenges

active vs. passive providers 165

exhaustion principle 186–8

fixation 165

technology platforms 164

collecting societies 30–31, 222–3

collective interests justification 178, 192–3

and competition

market dominance 335–6

neighbouring rights 190–91

pro-competitive aspects 332

relationship with 18–19, 48, 169

compulsory licensing 47–9

conflicts of interest 23–4, 28

and cultural innovation 168

derivative works

dependence/independence of 181–3

digital content 179

parodies 182–3

protection, generally 179–80, 179–83, 332

translations 184–5

derogations 61

digital content 46–7, 61, 158, 178, 185–6

Digital Rights Management (DRM) 202

duration 28, 47–8, 185–6

ergo omnes protection 49–50

expressions vs. ideas 166, 177–8, 237–8, 335–6

freedom of economic enterprise 162

historical development 156–60

individual vs. corporate rights 16, 160–62

Information Society Directive (InfoSoc) 157–8, 194–5

exceptions and limitations, discretion 196–8

exceptions and limitations, harmonisation 194–6

exceptions and limitations, strict interpretation 198–9

harmonisation 195–6

law reform 205–22

legitimate interests of third party 199–201

network controls 222

open models, lack of 204–5

risks 222–5

scope 195–6

Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) 47, 164, 201–6

three-step-test 199–201

intellectual labour, protection of 162

law reform proposals 205–16

dispute resolution 216

fair remuneration for authors and performers 216

limitations 213–15, 222–5

mandatory cooperation between IPSs and copyright holders 213–15

out-of-commerce works, use by cultural heritage institutions 215–16

private copying levies 217–19

socio-economic influences on 219–22

limitations 47–9, 159

moral rights vs. moral interests 170–73

neighbouring rights 16, 163, 184, 188–91

non-commercial exclusions 16

notice and take down procedure 171–2

and open access 50, 197–8

patent law, convergence and divergence 162, 166, 172–3, 176–7, 185–6

performers' rights 188–91

principles 156, 161–3

private access 61

private controls 49

producers' rights 188–91

proportionality 162, 193–4

protected works

Berne Convention, under 168–9

commercial publication, aptness for 175–6

conflicts 176

creative character requirement 173–5

creative conditions 166–8

derivative works 179–85

dichotomy principle 177–9

expressions vs. ideas 166, 177–8, 237–8, 335–6

free uses entitlements 191–4

infringements, rights of removal 171–2

interpretation 165–6

patent overlaps 162, 166

substantive requirements 173–7

and protectionism 27, 34–5, 159, 219–20

protections

conservation rights 176–7

criticisms 164

direct and indirect appropriation, from 179

duration 28, 47–8, 185–6

economic rights 170–71, 185–6

exclusion, rights of 164

fair use doctrine 199, 203–4

limitations 164

moral rights 171–3

right to access 163

rights holders, categories 163–5

third-party rights, producers and performers 188–91

publication right 170–72

purpose 158

regime 161–2

expansion 28, 162, 168–9

rental or lending rights 186–7

reproduction

private copying 217–19

rights 170

reworking right 170

second degree uses 186–7

technology copyright 158, 164–5

three-step-test 28, 199–201

Copyright Act 1980 (US) 238

Copyright Act 1985 (Can) 199

Copyright (Industrial Process and Excluded Articles)(No. 2) Order 1989 (UK) 233

Copyright (Industrial Process and Excluded Articles) Order 1989 (SI 1989/1070) 233

Coquet, L. 34

Cornish, W. 157, 186, 233

Cornu, E. 295

Cotter, T. 366

creative commons model 50

Cue Publishing v. Colgate-Palmolive300

Curley, D. 313

D’Annunzio v. Scarpetta182

data

free flows of 243–4

privatization, disadvantages 86

Data Cash Systems237–8

data mining 207–8

databases

and competition 243–4

sui generis right 86, 241–4

David, P.A. 37, 85

Davidoff289, 305, 310

Davies, G. 48

Davison, M. 243

Deleige-Sequaris, M. 284–5

Denmark 185

Denozza, F. 337

De Pamphilis, D.M. 278

Der Gruene Punkt – Duales System Deutschland GmbH v. Commission338

Derclaye, E. 312

derivative works/inventions

computer software 240–41

copyright protection 179–85, 240–41, 332

parodies 182–3

patentability 57–8, 79–80, 109–10, 113–16, 125, 131–8, 332

translations 184–5

Design Act 1988 (UK) 227, 232–3

Deutsche Grammophon GmbH v. Metro-SB-Grossmaerkte70, 339

Develey v. OHIM319

Developing and Least Developed Countries

definition 31–2

and globalization 32

IPR conflicts of interest 31–41

legal framework asymmetry 32–3

legitimate interests, conflicts 39

neo-colonial influences 31–41

rule adoption timetable 34

technology spillover 38, 40

TRIPs Agreement

adoption timetable 34–5, 38–9

applicability 5, 31–4

competitive incentives 35–6

compulsory licensing 40–41

fairness 34–8

local working requirement 36–41, 105

TRIPs Plus Agreements 33–4

WIPO Development Agenda 39

DHL293

Di Cataldo, V. 6, 99, 110, 304

digital content see also Information Society

copyright 158, 178, 185–6, 217–19

data mining 207–8

derivative works, as 179

geo-blocking 340–41

hyperlinks 196

IPR conflicts 46–7, 340–41

law reform proposals 185–6

data mining 207–8

ISP cooperation requirements 213–15

press publisher access 209–12

multi-territorial licensing 222–3

online platforms 222–3

private copying levies 217–19

user generated content 15

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) 1998 (US) 203–4

Digital Rights Management (DRM) 202

Dinwoodie, G. 11, 23, 171

Dior276, 318

Directive 84/450/EC on misleading and comparative advertising 283

Directive 89/104/EEC on trademarks 259, 263, 274–5, 308, 313, 318

Directive 91/250/EEC on computer programs and databases 169, 238–41

Directive 92/38/EC on free movement of persons 350

Directive 92/100/EEC on rental and lending rights 186–7

Directive 93/98/EC on rental and lending rights 185

Directive 96/9/EC on protection of databases 147, 193, 202, 241–4, 305

Directive 98/44/EC on protection of biotechnology inventions 53, 89, 97, 110

Directive 98/71/ EC on industrial designs 169, 228–9, 233–5, 315

Directive 2000/31/EC on E-Commerce 215

Directive 2001/29/EC on Information Society see Information Society

Directive 2001/83 on medicinal products for human use 104

Directive 2004/48/EC on the enforcement of intellectual property rights 17, 203, 214

Directive 2005/29/EC on unfair commercial practices 265, 297, 315, 382, 389

Directive 2006/115/EC on rental and lending rights 187, 190

Directive 2006/116/EC on term of copyright protection 28, 189

Directive 2008/95/EC on trademarks 259, 268, 270, 280, 290–91, 302, 307, 312

Directive 2009/24/EC on computer programs and databases 169, 187

Directive 2011/77/EU on term of copyright protection 28, 189

Directive 2014/26/EU on collective management of copyright 30–31, 223, 340

Directive 2015/2436/EU on trademark reform 259–61, 263–5, 268, 270, 273, 280–82, 287, 289–92, 294, 302, 307, 310, 314, 320

Directive 2016/943/EU on protection of trade secrets 83, 125–8, 336

Doherty, B. 349

Dolmans, M. 335

domain names 268

Dominicé, A.M. 85

Drahos, P. 13, 32, 73, 303, 354

Drassinower, A. 103

Drexl, J. 29, 51, 86, 223, 243, 313, 332

Dreyfuss, R. 88, 103, 133, 305, 335, 343, 384

Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, 1984 (US) 99

DSM/Roche Vitamins135

Dubilier16

Dunwoodie, G. 56

Dusollier, S. 11

Dutfield, G. 32–3

DVD cases 343–4

eBay Inc. et al. v. Mercexchange LLC19, 354, 356–7, 360

EGEDA218

Ehlerman, C.D. 88, 335

Eisenach, J.A. 351

Eisenberg, R. 85, 112, 131, 343

electronic commerce see also digital content; Information Society

domain names 268

geo-blocking 340–41

Elizabeth Emanuel263

Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013 (UK) 227, 233

equitable sharing 41, 106–7

Ericsson Inc. v. D-Link Systems Inc.371

Errico, P. 91

essential facilities doctrine 45, 49, 56–7, 60–61, 79–80, 335, 345–54, 357–8see also standard essential patents (SEPs)

appropriate remuneration 361–2

judicial interpretation 360–62

over-disclosure 357–8

Établissements Consten Sàrl and Grunding-Verkaufs GmbH v. Commission340

ETSI Rules 363–4

EU Charter of Fundamental Rights 13, 54–5, 162

European Patent Convention 198953, 104

alternative patenting 119–20

applied vs. basic research, interpretation 82–3

disclosure requirements 74–5

individual rights to IPR 15–16

industrial application 83–4, 92, 97

industrial vs. intellectual rights 4

inventive step 110–11, 119

prior art/non-dependent patents 131

product vs. process patents 107–9

publication requirements 76–7

reform proposals 117

trade secrets protection 126

utility models 118–19

evergreening 115–16

Evrard, S.B. 349

exhaustion principle 186–8, 340–41

patents 120–22

trademarks 274–6

Ezrachi, A. 339

fair use doctrine 199, 203–4

Falce, V. 223, 382

Fapl174

Farrell, J. 368

Faull, J. 368

Federal Trade Commission 367, 370

Federal Trade Commission Act 1914 (US) 333, 389

Federal Trade Commission v. Actavis348–9

Federico, P.J. 37, 77, 106

Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co158, 212, 242

Feldman, R. 346

Fezer, K.-H. 312

Firth, A. 312, 314

Flamagas315, 317

Flos229

Football Dataco174

Foro112

Foundation Alberto et Annette Giacometti v. Stitchin Fondaz183

Fox, E. 333, 360, 389

France 104, 203, 381

Franchi, L. 175

FRAND royalties, assessment criteria 362–3, 363–74

ex ante assessment 365–9

fair dealing 365–9

incremental value 365–9

optional standards 365

royalty stacking 369–74

technical features 363–5

top down approach 371–4

FRAND terms 48–9, 60, 235, 354–8

judicial interpretation 360–63

Frankel, S. 201, 312

Franklin Machinery v. Albany Farm Centre233

Franzosi, M. 374

free movement of goods 339–40

free-riding

IPR influences on 7, 10, 19

protections from 78–9, 136–7

freedom of contract 11–12, 50, 78

freedom of economic enterprise 1, 13, 55, 281–2, 339–40

freedom of expression 2

freedom of information 28

Frischmann, B.M. 349

fundamental freedoms

access to knowledge, without exploitation 60–61

constitutional hierarchy 54–6

economic enterprise 1, 13, 55, 281–2, 339–40

exceptions to, IPR as 2–3, 60–61

hierarchy of 54–5

IPR ownership by individual 13

Gal, M.S. 216, 243

Galatovic, A. 366

Garrison, B. 23

Geiger, C. 200–201, 281

generic signs, trademarks 291, 320

genes, patentability 88–9

Geneva Convention on phonograms 1971 16

Genovesi, L.M. 33, 312, 316

geo-blocking 340–41

geographical indications 279

Geradin, D. 368

Germany 16, 181, 201, 209, 384, 390

Gervais, D. 312

Gervais, G. 201

Ghidini, G. 12, 33, 41, 44, 56, 144, 244, 261, 281, 303, 312, 316, 354, 389

Giacometti v. Stitchin Fondaz182–3

Gibson, J. 279

Gilat, D. 99

Ginsburg, J. 35, 156, 166, 197, 201, 221, 305, 384

Giur55, 95, 104, 112, 144, 307, 310

GlaxoSmithKline v. Commission344

Glivec115–16

Gnyawali, D.R. 11

Goethe, W. 26, 239

Google/Motorola Mobility139, 352

Gottschalk v. Benson144, 237

Graham v. John Deere102

Grasso, R. 366

Graver Tank and Mfg. Co. v. Linde Air Prods. Co113

Griffiths, J. 201

Grundig Consten v. Commission340–41

GS Media193, 196

Guglielmetti, G. 240

Gutenberg, J. 19

Hager, J. 320

Haracoglou, I. 105

Hasenzahl, C. 37, 105

Hatch-Waxman Act 1984 (US) 104

Heller, M.A. 343

Henkel/Loctite278

Henkel v. OHIM319

Hewlett-Packard Belgium v. Reprobel209

Hilty, R. 208, 332

Hobsbawn, E. 1

Hodgkinson & Corby and Roho v. Ward305, 385

Hooks, J. 349

Hovenkamp, H.J. 332, 334, 366

Huawei Technologies v. ZTE Deutschland139, 347–8, 352–5, 361, 363, 365

Hugenholtz, B. 243

human rights 13, 54–5, 281, 359

hyperlinks 196

ICT sector see also digital content; internet service providers

cloud technology 218–19

de facto industry standards 350–55

domain names 268

hyperlinks 196

Internet of Things 46

open access licensing models 24, 44–5, 49–50

standardization 45

3-D printing 99–100

user generated content 15

value, influences on 81–2

IEEE Byelaws 364, 367, 371

Illinois Tool Works v. Independent Ink334

Ilrdi, A. 69

IMS Health v. NDC Health140, 347–8, 353

India 115–16, 360

individuals, rights of 12–14

alienation 14–15

copyright 16

corporations, copyrights of 14–17

patents 15–16

industrial application 82–3, 91–4, 97see also research and development

industrial designs

aesthetic features, separability 226–7

applied art 226–8, 232–3

artistic value and creative nature requirement 229–30

challenges and limitations 228–32

competition impacts 230–31

copyright, expansion of 226

design modifications 231

development 53, 226–7

duration 228

ex ante registration 229

FRAND terms, and 235

hybrid system for 6, 232–5

judicial interpretation 231–2, 234–5

law reform proposals 232–5

retroactive effects 230–31

shapes 229–30

‘spider juicer' 234

3-D shapes 14–15

industrial rights vs. intellectual rights 3–5

Infopaq International v. Danske Dagblades Forening174, 178, 193, 196

Information Society Directive (InfoSoc)

copyright exceptions and limitations

data mining 207–8

discretionary approach 196–8

harmonisation 194–6

law reform 205–22

legitimate interests of third party 199–201

network content 222

open models, lack of 204–5

scope 195–6

strict interpretation approach 198–9

Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) 47, 164, 201–6

three-step-test 199–201

user generated content 15

Digital Rights Management (DRM) 202

fair use doctrine 199, 203–4

law reform proposals 205–16

data mining 207–8

dispute resolution 216

fair remuneration for authors and performers 216

limitations 213–15, 222–5

mandatory cooperation between IPSs and copyright holders 213–15

out-of-commerce works, use by cultural heritage institutions 215–16

press publisher access 209–13

private copying levies 217–19

socio-economic influences on 219–22

online platforms, role and powers 222–5

open access 197–8

risks and conflicts of interest 28, 222–5

Innovatio, In re372, 374

innovation

collective interest, and 57–8

and competition 42, 69–72, 114

derivative inventions 131–8

implementation rights 132–4

substitutive innovation 92–6, 129–31

costs of 42

data privatization, disadvantages of 86

and implementation 132–4

patents

consent to exploit 133–4

derivative inventions 57–8, 79–80, 91, 93, 109–10, 113–16, 125, 332

evergreening 115–16

general formulae hypothesis 96–8

high-tech dependent patents 131–8

incremental 113–14

inventive step 93, 97–8, 110–13, 115–16

and scientific theory 85–6

substitutive innovation 92–6, 129–31

utility models 118–20

and proportionality 57–8

institutional framework

exclusion vs. access 2–3, 21–2, 49–53

fundamental freedoms 1–3

and market economy 2–3

mercantile system, of 2

intangible goods

production, stimulation of 82

public property, as 81–2

integrated circuits

protection, development 53

Intel271, 298

intellectual property rights, generally see also copyright; patents; trademarks

alienation of 14–15

balance, need for 50–53

book value interpretation 262

commercial development 14–15

and competition law

conflicts 6–7, 17, 45–6

essential facilities doctrine 45, 49, 56–7, 60–61, 335, 345–54, 357–8, 360–62

importance for 18–27

constitutional coherence, and 51

corporate/employer ownership 14–17

definition 13–14

distinctive signs 3–5

diversification 3–5

dual concentric perspective 50–53

exclusion, powers of 7–8, 10–11

and free-riding 7, 10

historical development 3–5, 34–5, 383–4

historical influences 62

hybrid systems 6

inclusion, powers of 7–8, 11–12

individuals, rights of 12–14

industrial vs. intellectual rights 3–6

investment function 300–301

legal conditions, role of 300–305

limitations 9–12

moral rights 14–15

numerus clausus principle 51–3

non-commercial use exceptions 16

principles 8–12

purpose 2–4, 383–4

separatist approach 7–8

Interflora268, 270, 302, 310

International Intellectual Property Alliance 31

International News Service v. Associated Press102, 304

Internet of Things 46

internet service providers

complaint and redress mechanisms 215

cooperation duties 213–15

definition 214

role and powers 222–5

inventive step

patents 93, 97–8, 110–13, 115–16

utility models 118–20

Irish Continental Group/CCI Morlaix349

Iron & Smith293

Italy 16, 29–30, 104, 172, 184, 211, 228, 241, 280, 286, 382–5

Jacob J (R.) 305, 385

Jacobs Adv. Gen. (F.) 318, 322

Jaffe, A.B. 114

Janis, M. 72

Jehoram, H.C. 276

Johan Deckmyn and Vrijheidsfonds VZW v. Helena Vandersteen182

Jorde, T.M. 343

justice, theories of 55–6

Kallaugher, J. 339, 347

Kaseberg, T. 348

Katz, M.L. 351

Kelloggs337

Kernochan, J.M. 35

Kimberly-Clark/Scott338

Kingston, W. 72–3

Kirin-Amgen v. Hoechst Marion Roussel27

Kitkat317

Kornspitz322

KRS International v. Teleflex117–18

Kuhn, J.M. 356–7

Kur, A. 312–13, 382

Kwok, K. 348

Ladas, S. 185

Laddie, H. 219

Lai, J.C. 85

Lametti, D. 158

Lande, R.H. 388

Landes, W. 272

Lanjouw, J.O. 20

Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights 2006 (Fr) 203

Lawrence, M.G. 166

Lawson, C. 32

Layne-Farrar, A. 351–2, 368–70

Le Chapelier, I. 14

Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) 2011 (US) 75, 117

Learned Hand, J. 320

Least Developed Countries see Developing and Least Developed Countries

Lee, E. 275

Lee, J. 360

Lee, N. 382

Leepuengtham, T. 90

Lego314, 317

Lehmann, M. 188

Leidseplein Beheer v. Red Bull302

Lemley, M.A. 18, 91, 194, 203, 237, 306, 366–70

Lenard, T.M. 351

Leno286

Lerner, J. 77, 114, 366

Lessig, L. 221

Levine, M. 139

Levitt, T. 102

Li, Y.B. 360

licensing

compulsory licensing

access vs. exploitation 59

benefits and disadvantages 134–5

copyright 47–9

criticism of 134–5, 137–8

Developing and Least Developed Countries, and 40–41

essential facilities doctrine 45, 49, 360–62

high-tech dependent patents 134–5

historical development 137

patents 104, 137–8

standard essential patents (SEPs) 358–60

TRIPs Agreement 40–41, 93, 137

creative commons model 50

duty to licence 79–80

competition conflicts 345–58

standard essential patents (SEPs) 358–60

essential facilities doctrine 45, 49, 345–54, 357–8, 360–62

FRAND royalties, assessment criteria 362–3, 363–74

ex ante assessment 365–9

fair dealing 365–9

incremental value 365–9

optional standards 365

royalty stacking 369–74

technical features 363–5

FRAND terms 48–9, 60, 235, 354–8

multi-territorial licensing 222–3

open access models 44–5

Technology Transfer Block Exemptions 342

willing licensees, access vs. exploitation 59–60, 79–80

Lim, D. 10, 334–5

Linde314–15

Lindner v. Germany55

Lindt317

Liotta, F. 226

Llewellyn, D. 233

Loblet, G. 368–9

Locke, J. 13, 88

Loewenheim, U. 305

L'Oréal v. eBay214

L’Oréal SA295

L’Oréal v. Bellure306–7

Louis Vuitton Malletier v. Haute Diggity Dog307

Lundqvist, B. 360–61

Luxembourg Convention 19754

Machlup, F. 73

Mackie Designs v. Behringer Specialised Studio Equipment233

Madison, M.J. 85

Mag Instrument v. OHIM319

Magill347, 353

Malbon, J. 32

Manuzio, A. 19, 156

market partitioning 340

MarktinternVerlag GmbH and Klaus Beerman v. Germany55

Martin y Paz302

Maume, P. 347

Maurer, S. 242

McCarthy, J.T. 262, 295

McCormick, N. 51

McManis, C. 23, 186

Meltwater197

Mendis, D. 100

Menell, V.P. 237–8

Ménière, Y. 370

Merck122, 361–2

Merck/Primecrown362

Merck/Stephar361–2

Merges, R.P. 35, 117, 156, 221, 332, 343, 356–7

Microsoft12, 59, 246, 353, 358, 360, 364, 368, 370

Mimler, M. 11

Mineral SPA271

Minervini, G. 1

misappropriation doctrine 304–5, 384

Moosehead/Whitbread340

moral rights

alienation 171

protection 48–9, 170–71

retention 14–15

vs. economic rights 170–73

Moscati, L. 13, 19, 226

Moseley299–300

MPEG343–4

Murphy v. Media Protection Services361

Musso, A. 197

Myriad Genetics88–9, 93, 97, 169

Naranjo-Valencia, J.C. 102

nasdaq/Nasdaq271

National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (US) 238

Nelson, R.R. 82

neminem laedere rule 381

Netanel, N.W. 182

Nikpay, A. 368

Nimmer, D. 199

Ninei La Perla271

Nintendo174, 204

Nissan Motor Co v. Nissan Computer Corporation300–301

Nokia218

Norman, H. 313

numerus clausus principle 51–3, 169

Nungesser KG and Kurt Eisele v. Commission340

Odol295–6, 304–5

Ohly, A. 102

Opel307

open access models 44–5

benefits 50

and copyright 197–8, 204–5

Information Society, in 204–5

IPR conflicts 24, 49–50, 205

Opperman, C.P. 332

Opus218

Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc24

Oscar Bronner348

Otter Tail Power Co. v. United States349

Padawan217–18

Padilla, J.A. 351–2

Pagenberg, J. 319

Pago International293

Painer174

Pardessus, J.M. 350

Paris Convention 1883259

compulsory licensing 104

industrial vs. intellectual rights 4

local working requirement 15, 36–7

similar trademarks 309

trademarks, limitations 296–7

unfair competition 17, 381, 383–4

Park, B.J.R. 11

Parke Davis v. Probel339, 345–6

Parker319

parodies, copyright protection 182–3

Parr, R.L. 262

passing off 6, 304–5, 386

Patent Act 1790 (US) 345

Patent Act 1883 (UK) 136–7

Patent Act 1977 (UK) 16, 104, 143

patent thickets 114

patents

access vs. exclusion 70

benefits 69, 74–7

biotechnological inventions 88–9, 97, 110

co-patenting 44

and competition

conflicts 80–81, 116–17

derivative inventions 131–8, 332

disclosure vs. exclusivity 123–5

economic significance 134

first to file 128, 145–8

high-tech dependent patents 131–8

imitation, by 101–4

implementation rights 132–4

influences on 123–38

licensing, benefits of 134–5

market dominance 334–5

observation, study or testing 128

patent-trademark linkages 278–9

pro-competitive aspects 332

role in 18–19, 71–4, 80–81

substitutive innovation 92–6, 129–31

trade secrets protection 125–8

computer software

judicial interpretation 237–8

policy development 239–40

product vs. process patents 108

reform proposals 144

rule of doubt 237–8

conflicts of interest 22–3

derivative inventions 57–8, 79–80, 125

product vs. process patents 107–10

description 74–5

disadvantages 70

disclosure and publication 74–6

duration of protection 75–6, 101–4

essential facilities doctrine 10, 45, 49, 56–7, 60–61, 79–80, 335, 345–54

appropriate remuneration 361–2

judicial interpretation 360–62

over-disclosure 357–8

evergreening 115–16

exceptions and limitations 53, 73–4, 75–6

applied research 81–92

Bolar clauses 99, 104

challenges 113–14

compulsory licensing 104

derivative inventions 57–8, 79–80, 109–10, 113–16, 125, 131–8, 332

equivalence 115–16, 130–31

expiry of term of protection 101–4

field of use 105–6

Galenic exception 98–9

high-tech dependent patents 131–8

imports vs. produced goods 104–5

insufficiency of exploitation 104–5

inventive step 110–13, 115–16

knowledge-spreading 105

local working requirement 104–5

non-commercial private use 98–100

non-obviousness 111, 117–18, 332

novelty and originality 110–13

prior art 92–6, 106–7, 112, 131

product-by-process patents 108–10

product vs. process patents 107–10

right to exclude, of 98–100

secondary and additional use 106–7, 115–17

stockpiling exception 103, 143

3-D printing 99–100

utility models 118–20

exclusionary powers and duties

duties to licence 79–80

exhaustion, principle of 120–22

field of use limitations 105–6

limitations 98–100, 105–7, 120–22

new and different use 106–7

paradox of 78–80

right to exclude 98–100

freedom of contract, and 78

historical development 27, 113–14

inclusivity 78–80

individual vs. commercial rights 15–16

innovation

consent to exploit 133–4

innovation, relationship with 69–72, 114

intangible goods

public property, as 81–2

stimulation of production 82

interpretation 71–2

investment function 300–301

knowledge dissemination, role in 74–7

licensing

compulsory 134–5

disadvantages 134–5

duty to licence 79–80

open access models 44–5

standard essential patents (SEPs) 358–60

willing licensees 79–80

local working requirement 15, 36–41, 104–5

monopolist tools, as 71–4

patent thickets 114

pharmaceutical patents 115–16, 145

and proportionality 81, 107–9

protectionism 27, 80, 113–14

purpose 71–4

reform proposals 72–3

computer software patent protection 144

cross-licencing 140–41

dispute settlement mechanisms 142–3

employee invention ownership 143

existing rules, for 142–3

first to file principle 145–8

FRAND criteria 140–42

grant of licences 139–40

new rules 139–42

publication time periods 142

purpose 138–9, 145–6

stockpiling exception 143

Supplementary Protection Certificates 58, 144–5

refusal to grant licence 22–3

requirements 74–6

research, patentability

basic vs. applied research 82–4, 88–92, 94

benefits for 77

and collaboration 95

and competitive advantage 87–8, 94–8

dependence/independence relationships 92–6, 131

derivative inventions 91, 93, 109–10

economic influences 87–9

exclusions 84–92

fruits of, patentability 81–92

general considerations 84–6

general formulae hypothesis 96–8

industrial application 83–4, 91–2, 91–4, 97

intermediate products 84

inventive step 93, 97–8, 115–16

pharmaceutical intermediaries 95

prior vs. subsequent innovation 92–6, 129–31

research vs. application 91

research vs. development 90–91

and rule of reason 93

scheduled obsolescence 87

scientific theories and discoveries 82, 84–6

targeted research 84, 87–8, 90–98

thresholds, interpretation challenges 90–92

risks 77, 113–14

secrecy periods 75–6

and trademarks

differences from 272

links with, competitive effects 278–9

unitary patents 30

unsubstitutability 79–80

voluntary inclusion 78–9

Patents Act 1883 (UK) 136–7, 143

Patterson, D. 349

Patterson, M. 373

Peczenik, A. 51

Pentheroudakis, C. 360–61, 363

Pepequello/Pepe e Pepe Jeans271

PepsiCo v. Coca Cola288, 337

Peritz, R. 356–7

Peukert, A. 62, 274

Pfizer, In Re103, 115

pharmaceutical patents

equivalence 115–16

orphan drugs 145

Philips310–11, 313–14

Phillips, T. 312

Picasso/Picaro310–11

Picht, P. 373

Pila, J. 312

Pitofsky, R. 349, 353

Portakabin276

Posner, R. 79, 171, 221, 272, 334–5, 347, 349, 384

Prashant Reddy, T. 115

Premier League Ltd v. QC Leisure10, 194, 196, 361

prices

IPRs influences on 9

prior art

patent exceptions 92–6, 106–7, 112, 131

Procter and Gamble313

ProLitteris v. Aargauer Zeitung201

proportionality

computer software protection 241

and conflicts of interest 54, 56–8

copyright 162, 193–4

and patents 81, 107–9

protectionism

conflicts of interest 26–31

copyright 27, 34–5, 159, 219–22

criticism of 42–4, 219–20

economic basis 41–2

exceptions 52–3

exhaustion principle 120–22

and innovation 42–5

patents 27

regional scope 122

risks and dangers 42–4

trademarks 27

trends 43–4

public goods

intangibles as 81–2

quotation right 210–11

Rambus357–8

Rangel Ortiz, H. 33

Ranks187

Reese, R. 194, 203

Regulation 417/85 on specialization agreements (EU) 261

Regulation 418/85 on research and development agreements (EU) 261

Regulation 40/94 on Community Trade Marks (EU) 259, 261, 274, 292

Regulation 2100/94 on Community plant variety rights (EU) 142

Regulation 1239/95 on Community plant variety proceedings (EU) 142

Regulation 2869/95 on Community trademark fees (EU) 259

Regulation 2236/97 on specialization and R&D agreements (EU) 261

Regulation 6/2002 on Community designs (EU) 169

Regulation 953/2003 on trade diversion avoidance in medicines (EU) 141

Regulation 873/2004 on Community plant variety rights (EU) 142

Regulation 816/2006 on compulsory licensing of pharmaceutical products (EU) 141

Regulation 207/2009/EC on Community trademarks (EU) 259, 261, 263–4, 271, 274, 280, 290–92, 299, 302

Regulation 330/2010 on the application of Article 101(3) TFEU on vertical agreements (EU) 276

Regulation 772/2010 on technology transfer (EU) 342

Regulation 1217/2010 on research and development agreements (EU) 342

Regulation 1218/2010 on specialization agreements (EU) 342

Regulation 1025/2012 on European standardization (EU) 335

Regulation 1152/2012 on quality schemes for agricultural products (EU) 280

Regulation 1257/2012 on unitary patents (EU) 30

Regulation 1260/2012 on unitary patent translations (EU) 30

Regulation 316/2014 on technology transfer (EU) 121, 342

Regulation 2015/2424 on Community trademarks (EU) 259–61, 263–4, 271, 274, 280, 290–92

Regulation 2015/2436 on Community trademarks (EU) 260, 302

Reich, N. 57

Reichman, J. 5, 24, 27, 29, 37, 42–3, 72–3, 105, 171, 242, 305

research and development

cooperative/collaborative production models 44

costs 42

IPR, benefits for 245–7

open vs. closed models 44–5

patentability

basic vs. applied research 82–4, 88–92, 94

benefits for 77

and collaboration 95

and competitive advantage 87–8, 94–8

dependence/independence relationships 92–6, 131

derivative inventions 91, 93, 109–10

economic influences 87–9

exclusions 84–92

fruits of, patentability 81–92

general considerations 84–6

general formulae hypothesis 96–8

industrial application 83–4, 91–2, 91–4, 97

intermediate products 84

inventive step 93, 97–8, 115–16

pharmaceutical intermediaries 95

prior vs. subsequent innovation 92–6, 129–31

research vs. application 91

research vs. development 90–91

rule of reason, and 93

scheduled obsolescence 87

scientific theories and discoveries 82, 84–6

targeted research 84, 87–8, 90–98

thresholds, interpretation challenges 90–92

and specialized standardization 44

Ricketson, S. 157

Ricolfi, M. 194, 308

Riis, T. 313, 360–61

Ringling Bros299–300

Robart, J. 12

Roche v. Bolar99, 104

Rodriguez, E.B. 33

Rome Convention 1961188–9

Rosati, E. 174

Rose, M. 160

Rosenberg, A.M. 51

Rosenthal Kwall, R. 133

royalties, assessment criteria 362–3, 363–74

ex ante assessment 365–9

fair dealing 365–9

incremental value 365–9

optional standards 365

royalty stacking 369–74

technical features 363–5

top down approach 371–4

RTI v. Editoriale L’Espresso197

Rubik317

Rubinfield, D.L. 216, 243

Ruskin, J. 113

Ryan, M.D. 33

Sabam v. Netlog165, 214

Salop, S.C. 388–9

Samsung353

Samuelson, P. 20, 29, 171, 237

Santore, R. 343

Sarti, D. 186–7, 189, 232

Sasso294

Saunders, M.K. 11

Say, J.-B. 71

Scarlet v. Sabam165

Schankerman, P. 20

Schechter, F. 295–6, 304–5

Scherer, F.M. 72

Schnaars, S.P. 102

Schokoladenverpackung320

Schovsbo, J. 313

Schricker, G. 37

SCIC v. Dentalica387

scientific research see research and development

scientific theories, patentability 82, 84–6

Scotchmer, S. 114, 343

Sea Container v. Stena Sealink349

Sena, G. 311, 346

Senftleben, M. 200, 214

separatist approach 7–8

SGAE196

shapes

industrial designs 229–30, 314

3-D shapes 311–20

industrial designs 314–15

trademarks 311–14

trademarks 290–91

competition impacts 311–20

confusion, risk of 318–20, 322–3

duration of protection 315

law reform 314–18

Shapiro, C. 351, 366–70

Shenkar, O. 102

Sherman, B. 295

Silos316

Simensky, M. 278

Smith, G.V. 262

Smith, Kline and French Laboratories v. Sterling-Winthrop Group311

Snapper, J.W. 20

snippets, copyright exceptions 209–13

Sokol, D. 360

Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act 1998 (US) 28, 185

Sony v. Universal Studios158

Soulier and Doke216

SPA Finders/SPA271

Spada, P. 203

Spain 201, 209

standard essential patents (SEPs) 358–60

FRAND royalties, assessment criteria 362–3, 363–74

ex ante assessment 365–9

fair dealing 365–9

incremental value 365–9

optional standards 365

royalty stacking 369–74

technical features 363–5

top down approach 371–4

standard setting 44–5

de facto industry standards 350–55

de jure industry standards 354–5

optional standards 365

Starck, P. 234

Statute of Anne 17103, 157, 162

Statute of Monopolies 16243, 162

Stazi, A. 12, 44, 261, 281

Stihl v. OHIM311

Stokke317

Stolfi, N. 156, 174

Storck v. OHIM319

Straus, J. 37

Supplementary Protection Certificates 58, 115, 144–5

Supply of Photocopies of Newspaper Article by a Public Library, Re201

Suzor, N. 224

Svensson193, 196

Swanson, D. 366

Switzerland 201

Syfait121

Synetairismos Famakopoion v. GlaxoSmithKline121

Tamaro v. Luttazzi182

TDK/TDK271

TDM (text and data mining) exceptions 207–8

Technische Universität Darmstadt v. Eugen Ulmer KG192

Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) 47, 164, 201–6

Technology Transfer Block Exemptions 342

Teece, D.J. 343

Tetra Pak Rausing SA v. Commission340

3-D printing

private use exception 99–100

3-D shapes

industrial design 314–15

trademarks

competition impacts 311–20

confusion, risk of 318–20

duration of protection 315

judicial interpretation 317–18

law reform proposal 314–18

Tirole, J. 366

Tomato II109

Torremans, P.L.C. 13, 54–5, 316

trade secrets protection 29, 125–8, 336

trademarks

assets, value as 262–3, 283–5

free transferability, impact on 286–7

multiple licensing 287–8

renowned trademarks 288–9

co-existence agreements 289–90

and coincidence 305–6

collective trademarks 279

and competition

consumer loyalty, and 278–9

dominant position 336–8

impacts on 266–79, 306–8

implicit abrogation principle 316–17

importance for 18–20, 266–7

imported goods 274–5

law reform proposal impacts 285–91

licensing 337–8

market entry 272

market leverage 288–9, 293–4, 305–6

market power 277–9

misleading uses 280–83

multiple licensing 287–8

pro-competitive aspects 332–3

renowned trademarks 277–9, 282–3, 305–8, 337–8

selective distribution 275–6

territoriality 274–5, 293, 306–8

3-D shapes 311–20

trademark-patent linkages 278–9

unfair competition 289, 295–8, 303, 306–8, 318–20

vulgarization 274, 278–9, 291, 320–23, 338

conflicts of interest 24–5, 262–3

imported goods 274–5

de facto trademarks 306–8

domain names, and 268

functions 262–3

confusion, avoidance of 266–8, 270–71, 294–6

distinctiveness 266–70, 285–6, 291

exclusivity 272

identification 272–3

investment 300–305

need to keep free 272–4, 285–6, 312, 320–23

qualitative information, conveyance of 279–83

generic signs 291, 320

geographical indications 279

individual vs. corporate rights 17, 263

infringement

production quotas, breach of 277

unauthorized imports 276–7

law reform 259–61, 285–6

co-existence agreements 289–90

competition, likely impacts on 285–91

free transferability 286–7

generic signs 291

multiple licensing 287–9

renowned trademarks, special protections 288–9, 291–2

shape marks 290–91, 314–18

licensing and transfers

co-existence agreements 289–90

consent, role of 289–90

cooperation 280–81

enforcement 280–81

free transfers 286–7

information, duties regarding 264

and merchandising 287

multiple licensing 287–9

non-connected sectors, in 282–4, 296–7, 307–8

renowned trademarks 282–4

and market identity

consumer perceptions, importance of 264–6

fragmented identity problem 262–5

origin of goods

importance of 266–7

notions of 264–5

passing off 304–5, 386

and patents

differences from 272

links with, competitive effects 278–9

per se goods, interpretation as 261–3, 283–5

renowned trademarks 297–9

protection regime

actual use requirement 285–6

availability requirement 272–4, 285–6, 312, 320–23

challenges 274–6

coincidence vs. misrepresentation 305–6

confusion, avoidance of 266–8, 270–71, 294–6, 302, 322–3

development 27, 259–60, 283–5

distinctiveness 266–70, 285–6, 291

and double identity 270, 310

duration 269

electronic commerce influences 261–2

exhaustion principle 274–6

false representation 270–71

generic signs 291, 320

intensity, criticism of 305–6

law reform 259–61, 285–91

limitations 268–9

and misappropriation doctrine 304–5

misleading information/use 280–82

prior market use 269–70

purpose 260–62

renowned trademarks 271, 288–9, 291–6

scope of 269–70

secondary meanings 320–23

shape marks 290–91

similar trademarks 270–71, 304, 308–11, 332–3

territoriality principle 274

unregistered de facto trademarks 308–9

protectionism

competition, impacts on 306–8

disadvantages of 296–308

qualitative information

conveyance of 279–83

misleading information/uses 280–83

renowned trademarks 271

competition impacts 277–9, 282–3, 305–8

confusion by association, avoidance 294–6, 302, 322–3

connections, relevance of 296–8

distinctiveness, dilution of 297–8

and double identity 270, 310

investment function 300–305

licensing in non-connected sectors 282–4, 296–7, 307–8

and market identity 294–5

patronage effect 265, 294, 298–300

protection extension 288–9, 292–6

protectionism, disadvantages of 296–305

and reputation 292–3, 297–300

secondary meaning 320–23

and similar trademarks 304, 308–11, 332–3

territorial protection 293, 307

and unfair competition 295–8, 303, 306–8

unregistered (de facto) trademarks, extension to 308–9

vulgarization 320–23, 338

revocation 280–82, 290

shape marks 290–91

confusion, risk of 318–20, 322–3

judicial interpretation 317–18

3-D shapes 311–20

technical truth, protection of 280

unregistered (de facto) trademarks, protection extension 308–9

vulgarization 274, 278–9, 291, 320–23, 338

traditional knowledge

IPR conflicts of interest 29, 48

out-of-commerce works, use by cultural heritage institutions 215–16

translations, copyright protection 184–5

Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) 6, 21

free movement of goods 339

horizontal cooperation, applicability to 95, 140, 337–8, 351, 354

TRIPs Agreement 1994 (WTO) 3

compulsory licensing 40–41, 93, 137

computer software 239

copyright 166

expressions vs. ideas 177

databases 241

Developing and Least Developed Countries

adoption timetables 34–5, 38–9

applicability 5, 31–4

competitive incentives 35–6

compulsory licensing 40–41

fairness 34–8

local working requirement 15, 36–41, 105

equitable sharing 41

fundamental principles 6

general principles 39, 41

legitimate interests, conflicts 39

minimum standards 5

patents

derivative inventions 79–80, 109, 125, 131

discrimination prohibition 104–5

exhaustion principle 120–22

inventive step 110–11

local working requirement 15, 36–41, 104–5

non-obviousness 111

product vs. process patents 107–9

technical advance of economic significance 134

trade secrets protection 126–7

trademarks 17

renowned trademarks 271, 294, 296

unfair competition 381

TRIPs Plus Agreements 33–4

Turgot, A.R. 14

Ullrich, H. 7, 112, 303, 331, 344, 354–5

unfair competition

assessment criteria, influences on 388–90

boycotts 333, 388

competitive interest conflicts 385–6

and consumer dependence 388

focus of 333–4

IPR, interaction with 333–4, 382–3, 385–6

laws on

development 383–5, 389–90

limitations 381–2

misappropriation doctrine 304–5, 384, 386

multi-layered approach 389–90

reform 387–90

scope of protections 6, 17, 34, 103, 126–7

tort law 126, 386

market, role of 387–8

renowned trademarks 295–8, 303, 306–8

3-D shape trademarks 318–20

trade secrets 126–7, 336

United States

Civil Code, 17 USC 1201204

Civil Code, 35 USC 75, 92, 345

Constitution, article 1.8.82–3, 158

United States v. Paramount Pictures158

United States v. Terminal Railroad Association349

Universal Copyright Convention 1952161, 171, 184

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 194813, 54, 281, 359

Unwired Planet v. Huawei363, 372–4

UPC Telekabel v. Constantin Film165

Usedsoft187–8

user generated content (UGC) 15, 160, 179, 199, 206, 207, 213, 256

USM Corp. v. SPS Technology Inc.334

utility models, inventiveness 118–20

Vaessen/Moris340

Van Bunnen, L. 284–5

Vanzetti, A. 263–4, 303

VCAST Limited v RTI SpA219

VG Wort218

VIPS/VIPS271

Visanath, R. 360–61

Vivant, M. 302

Volokh, E. 306

Volvo v. Erik Veng335

von Hippel, E. 44

Vorti, V. 360–61

Voss317

Wal-Mart v. Samara319

Waller, S.W. 349

Warner Brothers, Metronome Video v. Erik Viuff Christiansen346

Washington, G. 37

Weil, V. 20

Whelan Associates v. Jaslow Dental Laboratory238

Whirlpool313

WIPO

Copyright Treaties 1996161, 196–7, 202

Development Agenda 39

Model Provisions on Unfair Competition 382

Wolf272, 298–9, 308

Xalabarder, R. 222

Yahoo v. RTI165

Yale Electric Corporation v. Robertson300

Yu, P.K. 54

Zheng, W. 360

Zhou, K.Z. 102