Research Handbook on REDD-Plus and International Law
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Research Handbook on REDD-Plus and International Law

Edited by Christina Voigt

The REDD+ initiative for Reducing Emissions of greenhouse gases from Deforestation and Forest Degradation is an important tool, established under the UNFCCC, for incentivizing developing countries to adopt and scale up climate mitigation actions in the forest sector and for capturing and channeling the financial resources to do so. With contributions from legal experts, international relations scholars, climate change negotiators and activists, this Handbook eloquently examines the emerging governance arrangements for REDD+, analysing how and to what extent it is embedded in the international legal framework.
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Chapter 2: The Warsaw Framework for REDD+: implications for national implementation and results-based finance

Christina Voigt and Felipe Ferreira


The adoption of the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ (WFR) in 2013 has to a large extent concluded negotiations on REDD+ under the UNFCCC. The WFR established a structure that is flexible enough to accommodate a large variety of circumstances and capabilities of developing countries, while at the same time establishing a robust and clear framework fulfilling the criteria for a results-based approach for financing mitigation actions in the forest sector, including independent verification. The concept of results-based finance links payments directly to verified results. It focuses on rewarding positive outcomes of recipients’ actions, as opposed to traditional support modalities which can include the provision of an upfront grant or concessional financing. In those cases, the key aspect is that there is very little or no attempt for transfers to be contingent on the results provided by the recipient. In the case of REDD+, results are defined as mitigation outcomes, i.e. GHG emission reductions and/or enhancements in forest cover and carbon stocks (sinks) measured against a benchmark (forest reference emission level (REL) and/or forest reference level (RL)) expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents per year.

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