- Research Handbooks in Climate Law series
Edited by Christina Voigt
Chapter 2: The Warsaw Framework for REDD+: implications for national implementation and results-based finance
The adoption of the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ (WFR) in 2013 has to a large extent concluded negotiations on REDD+ under the UNFCCC. The WFR established a structure that is flexible enough to accommodate a large variety of circumstances and capabilities of developing countries, while at the same time establishing a robust and clear framework fulfilling the criteria for a results-based approach for financing mitigation actions in the forest sector, including independent verification. The concept of results-based finance links payments directly to verified results. It focuses on rewarding positive outcomes of recipients’ actions, as opposed to traditional support modalities which can include the provision of an upfront grant or concessional financing. In those cases, the key aspect is that there is very little or no attempt for transfers to be contingent on the results provided by the recipient. In the case of REDD+, results are defined as mitigation outcomes, i.e. GHG emission reductions and/or enhancements in forest cover and carbon stocks (sinks) measured against a benchmark (forest reference emission level (REL) and/or forest reference level (RL)) expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents per year.
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