Research Handbook on REDD-Plus and International Law
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Research Handbook on REDD-Plus and International Law

Edited by Christina Voigt

The REDD+ initiative for Reducing Emissions of greenhouse gases from Deforestation and Forest Degradation is an important tool, established under the UNFCCC, for incentivizing developing countries to adopt and scale up climate mitigation actions in the forest sector and for capturing and channeling the financial resources to do so. With contributions from legal experts, international relations scholars, climate change negotiators and activists, this Handbook eloquently examines the emerging governance arrangements for REDD+, analysing how and to what extent it is embedded in the international legal framework.
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Chapter 10: REDD+ and multilevel governance beyond the climate negotiations

Ernesto Roessing Neto and Joyeeta Gupta


Forests have been on the global agenda for at least 50 years. However, forest governance at the global level has been scattered through different organizations and forums, and comprehensive efforts to govern it globally have failed. The climate change discussions have re-energized forest governance efforts since the early days of the climate negotiations and particularly with the emergence of REDD on the agenda. Having said that, discussions on forest management have nevertheless moved rather slowly within the climate negotiations, thus leading to the emergence of discussions and decisions in parallel forums. This chapter aims to present and discuss a few of these parallel legal developments, without attempting to be comprehensive. One can distinguish four phases in forest governance and climate change. The first pre-1990 phase recognized the role of forests in the climate change problem and included a provisional target on net forest growth in the Noordwijk Declaration on Climate Change.The next phase (1990–97) focused on elaborating a forest policy commitment. Forest targets were delegated to a possible forest convention, while the 1992 UNFCCC stated that forests were both sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and that Parties should take appropriate measures. In the third phase (1997–2005), the KP of 1997 was adopted and allowed developed countries to partially meet their mitigation targets through the use of sinks.

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