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The Evaluation of Complex Infrastructure Projects

A Guide to Qualitative Comparative Analysis

Lasse Gerrits and Stefan Verweij

Infrastructure projects are notoriously hard to manage so it is important that society learns from the successes and mistakes made over time. However, most evaluation methods run into a conundrum: either they cover a large number of projects but have little to say about their details, or they focus on detailed single-case studies with little in terms of applicability elsewhere. This book presents Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) as an alternative evaluation method that solves the conundrum to enhance learning.
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Index

Lasse Gerrits and Stefan Verweij

Boolean operators, see notations and operators
calibration
and anchor points 52, 558, 6065, 67
basics 52, 558
crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA) 66
and cross-over point, see calibration, anchor points
definition 52, 54, 56
fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) 667
guidelines 645, 68
and interpretation 5966
multi-value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA) 68
and thresholds, see calibration, anchor points
types of 66
cases
boundaries 2930
and case-driven case study research, see cases, as found
and complexity 67, 239
as configurations 18, 229
definition 2930
as found 3031, 3745
knowledge 34, 656
reconstruction 212, 446, 479
selection 323
strategy 37, 46
as synthetic case descriptions (SCD) 445
from theory 3031, 4650
and theory-driven case study research, see cases, from theory
causal asymmetry 98
causal complexity 29, 83
and accountability 136
and asymmetry, see causal asymmetry
and operators, see notations and operators
in the solution formula 89, 978
and time 122
complexity
of cases 239
and causality 29
and configurations 239
and data 3841
and time 12022
principal aspects 67, 245, 812
conditions
and implications 29
number of 356
selection of 357
selection of outcome 345
configurations and complexity 239
conjunction 29, 534, 81, 836
and conjunctural causation 84
conjunctural causation 29, 81, 83, 97
and conjunction 84
consistency 1012, 111
PRI (Proportional Reduction in Inconsistency) 117
contextuality 7, 23, 25
counterfactual analysis 10710
and untenable assumptions 10910
coverage 11112
crisp-set calibration 66
example of 6872
and truth table 91
data
coding 414
collection 3841
matrix 77, 89
sources 22, 3841
structure 456
disjunction 846
and equifinality 84
equifinality 28, 29, 81, 83, 97
and disjunction 84
evaluation 10
and accountability 134, 1367
and learning 1334, 1367, 1412
and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) 1338
fuzzy-set calibration 667
example of 726
and truth table 912
generalization 113, 11516
heterogeneity 6, 24
interpretation, see calibration; solution formula
INUS (Insufficient but Necessary part of a condition which is itself Unnecessary but Sufficient for the result) 889
limited diversity 98, 99100, 106
strategies for dealing with 10610
trade-off with logical contradictions 1067, 110
logical contradictions 98, 100101
strategies for dealing with 1025, 110
trade-off with limited diversity 103, 110
logical remainders, see limited diversity
minimization 82, 94
in crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA) 945
in fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) 945
in multi-value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA) 957
multifinality 28, 29, 83, 97
and causal asymmetry 98
multi-value calibration 68
example of 767
and truth table 93
necessity 867
notations and operators 836
pairwise comparison, see minimization
Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA)
applications in infrastructure, construction, and transportation research 1921
arguments for its usage 7, 911, 28
contrast with other approaches 1617, 29, 83
and evaluation 1338, 1412
and event-sequence analysis 1313
as iterative research 1718, 33, 1056, 11213
origin 16
and process tracing 123
and strategies for dealing with time 12330
visualization 13841
set-membership 56, 66
set-theory 568, 846
software for QCA 82
solution formula
expressing causal complexity 978
expressing INUS 88
expressing sufficiency 87
interpretation through consistency and coverage 11112
interpretation through return to cases 11213
and mechanistic interpretation 11314
presentation of results, see Qualitative Comparative Analysis, visualization
types of, see counterfactual analysis
see also minimization
sufficiency 867
Temporal Qualitative Comparative Analysis (TQCA) 1257
see also Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), and strategies for dealing with time
Time-Series Qualitative Comparative Analysis (TS/QCA) 1279
see also Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), and strategies for dealing with time
truth table 81, 8994
analysis of, see minimization
data matrix conversion 8991
quality of 934
uniqueness 67, 25
variables
shadow-boxing 34, 53
versus calibration 53
versus conditions 29, 534, 83