Edited by Paul Martin and Amanda Kennedy
Chapter 2: Assessing environmental governance of the Hudson River Valley: application of an IPPEP model
Wang Xi, Richard L. Ottinger, Nicholas A. Robinson, Albert K. Butzel, Marla E. Wieder and John Louis Parker
Compliance with environmental law faces difficulties in all nations. This chapter seeks to define a methodology for assessing the requisites for determining whether or not a given state or nation is likely to succeed in protecting the environment. Studies at Shanghai Jiao Tong University have produced a model, described below as ‘Interactions of Parties in Process of Environmental Protection (IPPEP)’. The methodology of IPPEP permits evaluation of how governmental, economic and noneconomic public values interact. The IPPEP Model was tested in evaluating five case studies from the Hudson River Valley, in New York State (USA). The test shows that the IPPEP Model is a useful tool for understanding and assessing environmental governance in any given geographical or administrative area. The IPPEP Model refers to the situations of mutual influence among the parties when they develop, utilise or protect the environment. Environmental legislation establishes the rules for protection of ecological systems and public health. When all parties respect and observe this legislation, their relationships are in balance with each other. The equilateral triangle in the diagram expresses the Model. There are three parties or major players in the process of environmental protection: (1) government, being the state’s executive authority (which regulates and is subject to supervision or oversight by others in doing so); (2) economic enterprises (which are regulated, and often influence governments as well), and (3) The ‘Third Parties’ (such as citizens and environmental non-governmental organisations (NGOs), Courts and Congress), provide oversight and supervise the governmental regulatory and economic enterprise parties.
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