Emerging Markets and the Future of the BRIC Nations
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Emerging Markets and the Future of the BRIC Nations

Edited by Ben L. Kedia and Kelly Aceto

After a decade of unprecedented growth, the BRIC nations’ economies have unexpectedly slowed. In this innovative book, expert contributors diagnose and examine the factors that might be responsible for the economic regression in Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
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Chapter 2: Internationalization of firms from emerging markets: summary of findings based on three meta-analyses

Ahmet H. Kirca


Defined as the extent to which a firm is extended beyond the borders of its domestic base into new country markets and geographic regions to undertake value-adding activities (Hitt, Tihanyi, Miller and Connelly, 2006), firm internationalization is a key phenomenon and an interesting research topic for a vast number of scholars in the international business and management fields in the last four decades. A large number of studies have focused on firm internationalization because it potentially involves a central process that interacts with the structure, functioning, strategy, and performance of the firm. This stream of research on firm internationalization has made significant contributions to the international business and strategy fields with its explicit focus on the relationships involving the degree of internationalization (or firm multinationality), its antecedents, and consequences in various industry and country contexts (Hitt et al. 2006; Kirca et al. 2011). As far as the consequences of multinationality are concerned, a considerable body of research has examined the shape of the multinationality–performance relationship (i.e. linear, nonlinear, U-shaped, and inverse U-shaped relationships; see Contractor, Kundu, and Hsu 2003; Delios and Beamish, 1999) in various industries including manufacturing (Tallman and Li, 1996) and services (Capar and Kotabe, 2003).

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